Packaging and labeling

Packaging is the technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sell, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of designing, evaluating, and producing packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells. [1] In many countries it is fully integrated into government, business, institutional, industrial, and personal use.

Package labeling ( American English ) or labeling ( English ) is any written, electronic, or graphic communication on the package or a separate but associated label .


Ancient era

The baskets of reeds, wineskins ( bota bags ), wooden boxes , pottery vases , ceramic amphorae , wooden barrels , woven bags, etc. Processed materials have been developed for early glassand bronze vessels. The study of old packages is an important aspect of archeology .

The earliest is used for paperback when back to 1035, when a Persian traveler visiting markets in Cairo noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped in paper for the customers after they were sold. [2]

Modern era


The use of tinplate for packaging dates back to the 18th century. The manufacture of tinplate was a monopoly of Bohemia ; in 1667 Andrew Yarranton , an English engineer , and Ambrose Crowleybrought to Philip Foley . [3] [4] By 1697, John Hanbury [5] had a rolling mill at Pontypool for making “Pontypoole Plates”. [6] [7]The method pioneered there can be more effective than the practice of hammering .

Tinplate Boxes in the Bristol Channel in 1725. The tinplate was shipped from Newport, Monmouthshire . [8] By 1805, 80,000 boxes were made and 50,000 exported. Tobacconists in London began packaging snuff in metal-plated canisters from the 1760s onwards.


With the discovery of the importance of airtight containers for food preservation by French inventor Nicholas Appert , the tin canning process was patented by British merchant Peter Durand in 1810. [9]After receiving the patent, Durand did not go on with food canning. He sold His patent in 1812 to two other Englishmen, Bryan Donkin and John Hall, Who refined the process and product and set up the world’s first shopping canning factory is Southwark Park Road, London. By 1813, they were producing the first canned goods for the Royal Navy . [10]

The progressive improvement in canning stimulated the 1855 invention of the can opener . Robert Yeates, Trafalgar Place West, Hackney Road, Middlesex , UK, has devised a claw-ended op-ed with a hand-operated tool that hails its way around the top of metal cans. [11] In 1858, another rising-type opener of a more complex shape was patented in the United States by Ezra Warner of Waterbury, Connecticut .

Paper-based packaging

Set-up boxes were first used in the 16th century and modern folding cartons date back to 1839. The first corrugated box was produced commercially in 1817 in England. Corrugated (also called pleated) paper received a British patent in 1856 and was used as a liner for tall hats. Scottish-born Robert Gair invented the pre-cut paperboard box in 1890-flat pieces manufactured in bulk that folded into boxes. Gair’s invention came about as a result of an accident: as a Brooklynprinter and paper-bag maker during the 1870s, he was an ounce of printing, and the metal ruler, normally used to crease bags, shifted in position and cut them. Gair discovered that by cutting and creasing in one operation he could make prefabricated paperboard boxes. [12]

Commercial paper bags were first manufactured in Bristol , England , in 1844, and the American Francis Wolle patented a machine for automated bag-making in 1852.

20th century

Packaging Advancements in the early 20th century included Bakelite closures are bottles , transparent cellophane overwraps and panels on cartons . These innovations increase the efficiency and the food safety . As additional materials such as aluminum and other types of plastic have been developed, they have been incorporated into performance and functionality. [13]

In 1952, Michigan State University became the first university in the world to offer a degree in Packaging Engineering . [14]

In-plant recycling has long been common for producing packaging materials. Post-consumer recycling of aluminum and paper-based products has been used for many years: since the 1980s, post-consumer recycling , consumer awareness, and regulatory pressure.

Many prominent innovations in the packaging industry were developed first for military use. Some military supplies are packaged in the same commercial packaging used for general industry. Other military packaging must transport equipment , supplies, foods, etc. under severe distribution and storage conditions. Packaging problems Encountered in World War II led to Military Standard gold “mil spec” regulations applied to packaging being white, qui Was Then designated “military specification packaging”. As a prominent concept in the military, millet packaging officially came into being around 1941, due to operations in Icelandexperiencing critical losses, ultimately attributed to bad packaging. In most cases, millet packaging solutions (such as barrier materials, field rations , antistatic bags , and various shipping crates ) are similar to commercial grade packaging materials, but subject to more stringent performance and quality requirements. [15]

As of 2003 , the packaging sector accounted for two percent of the gross national product in developed countries . About half of this market is related to food packaging . [16]

The purposes of packaging and package labels

Packaging and package labeling have several objectives [17]

  • Physical protection – The objects enclosed in the package May require protection from, Among other things, mechanical shock , vibration , electrostatic discharge , pressure, temperature , [18] etc.
  • Barrier protection – A barrier to oxygen , water vapor , dust, etc., is often required. Permeation is a critical factor in design. Some packages contain desiccants or oxygen absorb absorbers to help extend shelf life. Modified atmospheres [19] or controlled atmospheres are also maintained in some food packages. Keeping the contents clean, fresh, sterile [20] and safe for the duration of the shelf lifeis a primary function. A barrier is also implemented in cases where segregation of two materials is required, as in the case of special paints, glues, medical fluids, etc. At the consumer end, the packaging is broken down and measured amounts of material are removed for mixing and subsequent use.
  • Containment or agglomeration – Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for reasons of storage and selling efficiency. For example, a single box of 1000 pencils requires less physical handling than 1000 single pencils. Liquids , powders , and granular materials need containment.
  • Transmission – Packages and labels how to use, transport, recycle , With pharmaceuticals , food , medical , and chemical products, some types of information are required by government legislation. Some packages and labels are used for track and trace purposes. Most items include their serial and lot numbers on the packaging, and in the box of food products, medicine, and some chemicals the packaging often contains an expiry / best-before date, usually in a shorthand form. Packages can indicate their construction material with a symbol.
  • Marketing – Packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase a product. Package graphic design and physical design-have-been significant and Constantly Evolving Several phenomena for decades. Marketing communications and graphic design are applied to the surface of the package and often to the point of sale . Most packaging is designed to reflect the brand’s message and identity.
A single-serving shampoo packet
  • Security – Packaging can play an important role in Reducing the security Risks of shipment. Packages can be made with tamper resistance and they can also have tamper-evident [21] features indicating that tampering has taken place. Packages may be engineered to help reduce the risks of pilferage or theft and other forms of pilferage. Counterfeit consumer goods , unauthorized sales (diversion), material substitution and tampering can all be minimized or prevented with such anti-counterfeiting technologies. Packages may includeauthentication seals and the use of security are not counterfeit . Packages also can include anti-theft devices such as dye-packs, RFID tags, or electronic article surveillance [22] tags that can be activated or detected by devices at exit points and require specialized tools at deactivate. Using packaging in this way is a means of retail loss prevention .
  • Convenience – Packages can have features that add convenience in distribution, handling, stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, using, dispensing, reusing, recycling, and ease of disposal
  • Portion control – Single serving or single dosage packaging. Bulk commodities (such as salt) may be divided into different categories. It also aids the control of inventory, selling sealed bottles of milk, rather than having their own bottles to fill themselves.

Packaging types

Various types of household packaging for foods

Packaging may be of several different types. For example, a transport package or distribution package can be the shipping container used to ship, store, and handle the product or inner packages. Some identify a consumer package, which is directed to a consumer or household.

Custom packaging is an evolutionary use of modern materials. Thermoforming and vacuum forming for expanded capabilities for large trays, displays, and specialty needs. Thermoforming is a method which uses vacuum, heat, and pressure to form the desired material into its shape by its mold. This type of packaging is often used by the cosmetic and medical industry. quote needed ]

Packaging May be Described in relation to the kind of product being white packaged: medical device packaging, bulk chemical packaging, over-the-counter drug packaging, retail foodpackaging, military materiel packaging, pharmaceutical packaging, etc.

It is sometimes convenient to categorize packages by layer or function: “primary”, “secondary”, etc.

  • Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the product and holds it. This usually is the smallest unit of distribution and is in the package which is in direct contact with the contents.
  • Secondary packaging is outside the primary packaging, and may be used to prevent pilferage or to group primary packages.
  • Tertiary or transit packaging is used for bulk handling , warehouse storage and transport shipping. The most common form is a palletized unit load that packs tightly into containers .

These broad categories can be somewhat arbitrary. For example, DEPENDING on the use, a shrink wrap can be primary packaging When applied directly to the product, secondary packaging When used to combine smaller packages, or tertiary packaging When used to Facilitate Some kinds of distribution, Such As to affix a number of cartons we have pallet.

Symbols used on packages and labels

A bar code on a tin of condensed milk

Many types of symbols for package labeling are nationally and internationally standardized. For consumer packaging, symbols for product certifications (such as the FCC and TÜV marks), trademarks , proof of purchase , etc. Some requirements and symbols exist to communicate aspects of consumer rights and safety, for example the CE marking or the Estimated sign That note conformance to EU accuracy Weights and Measures regulations. Examples of environmental and recycling symbols include the recycling symbol , the recycling code (qui Could Be a resin identification code ), and the “Green Dot”. Food packaging may show food contact material symbols. In the European Union , products of animal origin are qui Intended to be Consumed by humans-have to carry standard oval-shaped EC identification and health marks for food safety and quality insurance Reasons.

Bar codes , Universal Product Codes , and RFID labels are common to allow automated information management in logistics and retailing . Country of Origin Labeling is often used. Some products might use QR codes or similar matrix barcodes . Packaging may have visible registration marks and other printing calibration and troubleshooting cues.

Shipping container labeling

“Print & Apply” UCC wrap corner ( GS1-128 ) label application to a pallet load

Related codes, bar codes , and electronic data interchange ( EDI ). These three core technologies serve to enable the business functions in the process of shipping containers throughout the distribution channel. Each has an essential function: identification codes, data codes, data interchange, data interchange, data interchange, and EDI transactions between the distribution channel.

Elements of these core technologies include UPC and EAN item identification codes, SSCC-18 (Serial Shipping Container Codes), Interleaved 2-of-5 and UCC / EAN-128 (newly designated GS1-128 ) bar code symbologies , and ANSI ASC X12 and UN / EDIFACT EDI standards.

Small parcel carriers have their own formats. For example, United Parcel Service has a MaxiCode 2-D code for parcel tracking.

RFID labels for shipping containers are also popular. A Wal-Mart division, Sam’s Club , has also moved in this direction and is putting pressure on its suppliers to comply. [23]

Shipments of hazardous materials or dangerous goods -have special information and symbols (labels, placards, etc.) as required by UN, country, and specific carrier requirements. They are also used to communicate handling needs. Some are defined in ASTM D5445 “Standard Practice for Pictorial Markings for Handling of Goods” and ISO 780 “Pictorial Marking for Handling of Goods “.

  • Flammable liquid

  • explosives

  • This way up

  • Fragile material

  • Keep away from water

Further information: List of symbols § Consumer_products

Package development considerations

Package design and development are often thought of as an integral part of the new product development process. Alternatively, the development of a package (or component) may be a separate process, but must be closely linked to the product to be packaged. Package design starts with the identification of all the requirements: structural design, marketing , shelf life , quality assurance , logistics , legal, regulatory, graphic design , end-use, environmental, etc. The design criteria, performance (specified by package testing ), completion time targets, resources, and cost constraints. Package design processes often employrapid prototyping , computer-aided design , computer-aided manufacturing and document automation .

Transport packaging needs to be matched to its logistics system. Packages designed for controlled shipments of uniform pallet loads May not be suited to mixed shipments with express carriers.

An example of how design is affected by other factors is its relationship to logistics . When the distribution system is involved, the handling, the handling, and the mixed stacking make the demands of the strength of the transport package. If the logistics system consists of vertical palletized units , the structural design of the package can be designed to meet those specific needs, such as vertical stacking for a longer time frame. A package designed for one mode of shipment may not be suited to another.

With some types of products, the design process involves detailed regulatory requirements for packaging. For example, any package components That May contacting foodsare designated Food Contact materials . [24] Toxicologists and food scientists are required to verify that such materials are allowed by applicable regulations. Packaging engineers need to verify that the product will be safe for the shelf life with normal use. Packaging processes, labeling, distribution, and sale to be validated to ensure that they comply with the regulations.

Sometimes the objectives of package development seem contradictory. For example, regulations for an over-the-counter drug might require the package to be tamper-evidentand child resistant : [25] These intentionally make the package difficult to open. [26] The intended consumer, however, might be disabled or elderly and unable to fully open the package. Meeting all goals is a challenge.

Design package may take place within a company or with different degrees of external packaging engineering : independent contractors , consultants , vendor evaluations, independent laboratories, contract packagers, total outsourcing , etc. Some sort of formal project planning and project management methodology is required for all purpose The Simplest package design and development programs. An effective quality management system and Verification and Validation are mandatory for all types of packaging and recommended for all.

Environmental considerations

The waste hierarchy
Main article: sustainable packaging

Package development involves considerations of sustainability , environmental responsibility, and applicable environmental and recycling regulations. It may involve a life cycle assessment [27] [28] which considers the material and energy inputs and outputs to the package, the packaged product (contents), the packaging process, the logistics system, [29] waste management , etc. It is necessary to know the requirements of the regulatory requirements for the point of manufacture, sale, and use.

The traditional “three R’s” of reduce, reuse, and recycle are part of a waste that can be considered in product and package development.

  • Prevention – Waste prevention is a primary goal. Packaging should be used only where needed. Proper packaging can also help prevent waste. Packaging plays an important part in preventing losses or damage to the packaged product (contents). Usually, the energy content and the material use of the product being packaged are much greater than that of the package. A vital function of the package is to protect the product for its intended use: if the product is damaged or degraded, its entire energy and material content may be lost.
  • Minimization – (also “source reduction”) The mass and volume of packaging can be measured and used in the design process. Usually “reduced” packaging also helps minimize costs. Packaging engineers continues to work towards reduced packaging. [30]
  • Reuse – Reusable packaging is encouraged. [31] Returnable packaging has been useful (and economically viable) for closed loop logistics systems. Inspection, cleaning, repair and recouperage are often needed. Some manufacturers use the packaging of the product for the product, or the packaging for the outgoing product [32] or as part of the product itself. [33]
  • Recycling – Recycling is the reprocessing of materials (pre- and post-consumer) into new products. Emphasis is focused on recycling the largest primary components of a package: steel, aluminum, papers, plastics, etc. Small components can be chosen which are not difficult to separate and do not contaminate recycling operations. Packages can sometimes be designed to separate components to better facilitate recycling.
  • Energy recovery – Waste-to-energy and waste-derived fuel in approved facilities using the heat from incinerating the packaging components.
  • Disposal – Incineration , and placement in a sanitary landfill are undertaken for some materials. Some US states regulate packages for toxic contents, which have the potential to contaminate emissions and ash from incineration and leachate from landfill. [34] Packages should not be littered .

The development of sustainable packaging is an area of ​​considerable interest to organizations , governments, consumers, packagers, and retailers.

Packaging machines

Beer bottling lines

Choosing packaging machinery, labor requirements, worker safety, maintainability , serviceability, reliability , ability to integrate into the packaging line, capital cost, floorspace, flexibility (change-over, materials, etc.), energy requirements, quality of outgoing packages, qualifications (for food, pharmaceuticals, etc.), throughput, efficiency, productivity, ergonomics , return on investment , etc.

Packaging machinery can be:

  1. purchased as standard, off-the-shelf equipment
  2. purchased custom-made or custom-tailored to specific operations
  3. manufactured or modified by in-house

Packaging line at efforts automation increasingly use programmable logic controllers and robotics .

Packaging machines can be of the following general types:

  • Accumulating and collating machines
  • Blister packs , skin packs and vacuum packaging machines
  • Bottle caps equipment, over-capping, lidding, closing, seaming and sealing machines
  • Box , box and tray forming, packing, unpacking, closing and sealing machines
  • Cartoning machines
  • Cleaning, sterilizing, cooling and drying machines
  • Coding, printing, marking, stamping, and imprinting machines
  • Converting machines
  • Conveyor belts , accumulating and related machines
  • Feeding, orienting, placing and related machines
  • Filling machines : dry, powdered, solid handling, liquid, gas, gold viscous products
  • Inspecting : visual, sound, metal detecting, etc.
  • Label dispenser
  • Orienting, unscrambling machines
  • Package filling and closing machines
  • Palletizing , depalletizing, unit load assembly
  • Product identification: labeling , marking, etc.
  • Sealing machines: heat sealer
  • Slitting machines
  • Weighing machines: check weigher , multihead weigher
  • Wrapping machines: stretch wrapping, shrink wrap , banding
  • Form, fill and seal machines
  • Other specialty machinery: slitters , perforating , laser cutters, attachment parts, etc.


  1. Jump up^ Soroka (2002)Fundamentals of Packaging Technology, Institute of Packaging ProfessionalsISBN 1-930268-25-4
  2. Jump up^ Diana Twede (2005). “Origins of Paper Based Packaging” (PDF) . Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing Proceedings12 : 288-300 [289]. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 16, 2011 . Retrieved March 20, 2010 .
  3. Jump up^ Brown, PJ (1988), “Andrew Yarranton and the British tinplate industry”,Historical Metallurgy , 22 (1), pp. 42-48
  4. Jump up^ King, PW (1988), “Wolverley Lower Mill and the beginnings of the tinplate industry”, Historical Metallurgy , 22 (2), pp. 104-113
  5. Jump up^ King 1988, p. 109
  6. Jump up^ HR Schubert,History of the British iron and steel industry … to 1775, 429.
  7. Jump up^ Minchinton, WW (1957), The British tinplate industry: a history , Clarendon Press, Oxford, p. 10
  8. Jump up^ Data extracted from DP Husseyet al., Gloucester Port Books Database(CD-ROM, University of Wolverhampton 1995).
  9. Jump up^ Geoghegan, Tom (April 21, 2013). “BBC News – The story of how tin was not used . ” . Retrieved June 4, 2013 .
  10. Jump up^ William H. Chaloner (1963). People and Industries . Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 0-7146-1284-7 .
  11. Jump up^ Encyclopedia of Kitchen History . Taylor & Francis Group. September 27, 2004. ISBN 978-1-57958-380-4 .
  12. Jump up^ Diana Twede & Susan EM Selke (2005). Cartons, crates and corrugated board: handbook of paper and wood packaging technology . DEStech Publications. pp. 41-42, 55-56. ISBN 978-1-932078-42-8 .
  13. Jump up^ Brody, A. L; Marsh, K. S (1997). Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology. ISBN 0-471-06397-5 .
  14. Jump up^ “Michigan State School of Packaging” . Michigan State University . Retrieved February 11, 2012 .
  15. Jump up^ Maloney, JC (July 2003). “The History and Significance of Military Packaging” (PDF) . Defense Packaging Policy Group . Defense Logistics Agency.
  16. Jump up^ Y. Schneider; C. Kluge; U. Weiß; H. Rohm (2010). “Packaging Materials and Equipment”. In Barry A. Law, AY Tamime. Technology of Cheesemaking: Second Edition . Wiley-Blackwell. p. 413. ISBN 978-1-4051-8298-0 .
  17. Jump up^ Bix, L; Rifon; Lockhart; of the Fuente (2003). The Matrix Packaging: Linking Criteria Design Package to the Marketing Mix . IDS Packaging . Retrieved 16 September 2017 .
  18. Jump up^ Choi, Seung-Jin; Burgess (2007). “Practical mathematical model to predict the performance of insulating packages”. Packaging Technology and Science . 20 (6): 369-380. doi : 10.1002 / pts.762 .
  19. Jump up^ Lee, Ki-Eun; Kim; Year; Lyu; Lee (1998). “Effectiveness of modified atmosphere packaging”, prepared ready-to-eat food. Packaging Technology and Science . 21 (7): 417. doi : 10.1002 / pts.821 .
  20. Jump up^ Severin, J (2007). “New Methodology for Whole-Package Microbial Challenge Testing for Medical Device Trays”. J. Testing and Evaluation . 35 . doi : 10.1520 / JTE100869 .
  21. Jump up^ Johnston, RG (1997). “Effective Vulnerability Assessment of Tamper-Indicating Seals” (PDF) . J. Testing and Evaluation . 25 (4). doi :10.1520 / JTE11883J .
  22. Jump up^ How to Anti-Shoplifting Devices Work “,
  23. Jump up^ Bacheldor, Beth (January 11, 2008). “Sam’s Club Tells Suppliers to Tag or Pay” . Retrieved January 17, 2008 .
  24. Jump up^ Sotomayor, RE; Arvidson, Kirk, Mayer, McDougal, Sheu (2007). Regulatory Report, Assessing the Safety of Food Contact Substances . Food Safety .
  25. Jump up^ Rodgers, GB (1996). “The safety effects of child-resistant packaging for two decades of experience”. JAMA . 275 (21): 1661-65. doi : 10.1001 / jama.275.21.1661 . PMID 8637140 .
  26. Jump up^ Yoxall, A .; Janson, R .; Bradbury, SR; Langley, J .; Wearn, J .; Hayes, S. (2006). “Openability: producing design limits for consumer packaging”. Packaging Technology and Science . 16 (4): 183-243. doi : 10.1002 / pts.725 .
  27. Jump up^ Zabaniotou, A; Kassidi (2003). “Life cycle assessment applied to egg packaging made from polystyrene and recycled paper”. Journal of Cleaner Production . 11 (5): 549-559. doi : 10.1016 / S0959-6526 (02) 00076-8 .
  28. Jump up^ Franklin (April 2004). “Life Cycle Inventory of Packaging Options for Shipment of Retail Mail-Order Soft Goods” (PDF) . Retrieved December 13, 2008 .
  29. Jump up^ “SmartWay Transport Partnerships” (PDF) . US Environmental Protection Agency . Retrieved December 22, 2008 .
  30. Jump up^ DeRusha, Jason (July 16, 2007). “The Incredible Shrinking Package” . WCCO. Archived from the original on July 17, 2007 . Retrieved July 16,2007 .
  31. Jump up^ Use Reusables: Fundamentals of Reusable Transport Packaging(PDF) , US Environmental Protection Agency, 2012, archived from the original (PDF) on January 14, 2015 , retrieved June 30, 2014
  32. Jump up^ “HP DeskJet 1200C Printer Architecture”. (PDF) Retrieved on June 27, 2012.
  33. Jump up^ “Footprints In The Sand”. Retrieved on June 27, 2012.
  34. Jump up^ “Toxics in Packaging” . Retrieved July 31, 2007 .
  35. Jump up^ Wood, Marcia (April 2002). “Leftover Straw Gets New Life” . Agricultural Research .