Microtargeting is the use by political party and election campaigns of direct marketing datamining That Involve Technical predictive market segmentation (aka cluster analysis ). It is used by United States Republican and Democraticpolitical party and candidate to track individual voters and Identify potential supporters. The term “microtargeting” was coined in 2002 by political consultant Alexander P. Gage [1] [2] .

They then use various means of communication-direct mail, phone calls, home visits, television, radio, web advertising, email, text messaging, etc.-to communicate with voters, crafting messages to build support for fundraising, campaign events, volunteering, and eventually to turn them over to the polls on election day. Microtargeting’s tactics rely on transmitting a tailored message to a subgroup of the electorate on the basis of only information about that subgroup.


Although some of the tactics of microtargeting had been used in California since 1992, it was started nationally only in 2004 . [3] In that year, Karl Rove , along with Blaise Hazelwood at the Republican National Committee , was used in 18 states by George W. Bush’s reelection campaign. The results were greater contacts Bush Bush. For example, in Iowa the campaign was able to reach 92% of eventual Bush voters (compared to 50% in 2000 ) and in Florida it was able to reach 84% (compared to 50% in 2000).[4] Much of this pioneering work was done by Alex Gage and his firm, TargetPoint Consulting.

Democrats did only limited microtargeting in 2004, with some crediting microtargeting for Kerry’s win in Iowa in 2004. [5] Some news accounts are credited with the election cycle. [6] Democrats later developed microtargeting capabilities for the 2006 election cycle . [3] [4] “It’s no secret that the other side [Republicans] figured this out a little sooner,” said Josh Syrjamaki, director of the Minnesota chapter of America’s Votes in October 2006. “They’ve had four to six years ‘jump on us on this stuff … but we feel like we can start to catch up.’ [7]

In the United States presidential election, 2016 , Cambridge Analytica played a role in first promoting Ted Cruz and, eventually, Donald Trump . [8] However, the claims of Cambridge Analytica’s influence, made by its managers, have not been proven, and Cruz’s opponent Ben Carson was ultimately unsuccessful even though he, too, involved Cambridge Analytica in his campaign. [9]


Microtargeting is a modification of a practice used by commercial direct marketers. It would not be possible on a large scale without the development of large and sophisticated databases as possible. The most popular way to vote in the same way. Visa track consumer spending habits. The Republican National Committee’s database is called Voter Vault . The Democratic National Committee effort is called VoteBuilder . [10] A parallel Democratic efforts being white is developed by Catalist , a $ 9 million initiative headed by Harold Ickes , [4]while the leading non-partisan database is offered by Aristotle . [11]

The databases Contain specific information about a Particular vote (party affiliation, frequency of voting, contributions, volunteerism, etc.) with other activities and habits available from commercial marketing vendors Such As Acxiom , Dun & Bradstreet , Experian Americas , and InfoUSA . Such personal information is a “product”. These data are particularly illuminating when portrayed through a Geographic Information System ( GISwhere can be mapped alongside dozens or hundreds of other variables. This geographic depiction also makes it easier for FedEx and UPS to pre-determine delivery routes.

These are databases Then mined to Identify major issues To Each vote and whether That vote is More Likely to Identify with one gold Reviews another party. Political information is obviously important here, but consumer preferences can play a role as well. Individual voters are then getting into groups on the basis of sophisticated computer modeling. Such groups have names like “Downscale Union Independents”, “Tax and Terrorism Moderates,” and “Older Suburban Newshounds.” [4] [7]

Once a multitude of voting groups is established according to these criteria and their political differences, then the tailored messages can be sent via the appropriate means. Untitled Documentary For the public broadcast of the broadcast of a television channel for the broadcast of a television broadcast, it is not uncommon to have several variations on the message, each with a unique and tailored message for that small demographic sliver of the public voting. This is the same for radio advertisement, direct mail, email, and stump speeches fundraising events.

See also

  • narrowcasting


  1. Jump up^ https://www.technologyreview.com/s/509026/how-obamas-team-used-big-data-to-rally-voters/How Obama’s Team Used Big Data to Rally Voters
  2. Jump up^ http://theaapc.org/about-us/board-of-directors/alex-gage/ALEXANDER P. GAGE
  3. ^ Jump up to:b Chad Vander Veen Zeroing In, www.govtech.net, January 2, 2006 , accessed November 1, 2006.
  4. ^ Jump up to:d Yochi J. Dreazen , Democrats, Playing Catch-Up Database to Tap Potential Woo Voters, The Wall Street Journal , October 31, 2006, A1.
  5. Jump up^ Schaller, T:New Math: How a trio of savvy Kerry campaign workers used a fresh vote equation to win Iowa. , web only. American Prospect, 2004.
  6. Jump up^ Martin Kettle, “How Democrats missed the vote”,The Guardian, November 3, 2006[1], accessed February 2, 2007
  7. ^ Jump up to:b Dan Balz, Democrats Aim to Regain Edge In Getting Voters to the Polls, Washington Post , October 8, 2006, accessed November 7, 2006. [2]
  8. Jump up^ Rhys Blakely (2016-09-22). “Data scientists target 20 million new voters for Trump” . The Times .
  9. Jump up^ Reinbold, Fabian; Schnack, Thies (6 December 2016). “Ich ganz allein habe Trump ins Amt gebracht” . Spiegel Online .
  10. Jump up^ Aaron Blake (August 15, 2007). “DNC holds national training as it rolls out new vote file” . The Hill .
  11. Jump up^ James Verini (December 3, 2007). “Big Brother Inc” . Vanity Fair .