Integrated marketing communications

Integrated marketing communications ( IMC ) is the use of marketing strategies to optimize the communication of a company’s brands. [1] Coupling methods together improves communication as it harnesses the benefits of each channel, which when combined together builds a clearer and vaster impact than if used individually. [2] IMC requires marketers to identify the boundaries of the promotional mix elements and to consider the effectiveness of the campaign’s message. [3]


Integrated Communications (IMC) was first defined by the American Association of Advertising Agencies (4A’s) in the early 1990s as “a comprehensive plan to further assess the strategic roles of a range of different communications disciplines.” (Boundless, 2015) Examples include; “general advertising, direct response, sales promotions and public relations, combining these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency and maximum communications impact”. (Belch, 2012) The development of BMI at this course, Focused on the need for organizations to offer more than just standard advertising to Consumers icts. (Integrated Marketing Communications, 2013)

In 1991, Don Schultz, a professor at the Emeritus Service, Northwestern University’s Med School, proposed a new definition of IMC as “IMC is the process of all sources and information managed by the consumer. dirty “(Kliatchko, 2005). This definition, however, leaves the fact that IMC is also a concept and not just a process.

The Faculty of Medill School of Journalism , Northwestern University, was first introduced in 1991 by IMC (Shultz, 1997). IMC program in the US after consulting the director of marketing , schools advertising and also the public relationscurricula (About Medill, 2015). The study of IMC is focused on understanding the concept and the importance of IMC and also the analysis of the extent of the disease in US advertising agencies (Kliatchko, 2005). The study was then followed by many other organizations based on US, but all over the world, including; New Zealand, UK, USA, Australia, India, Thailand, South Africa and the Philippines, etc. The result of these studies was concluded in the early 1980s, and was revised for the first time (Kitchen, PJ 2012).

Tom Duncan introduced its first definition of IMC in 1992, and was revised in 1994 as “the process of strategic monitoring and influencing”. ” (Duncan and Caywood, 1996) Duncan explained that the reasons for its definition have been created by IMC creating more profitable and profitable relationships with all stakeholders. (Duncan and Caywood, 1996)

Contributions by Nowak & Phelps did not give a concrete definition of IMC, instead they conceptualized the notion of IMC, based on the most “fundamental notions of the concept” these were; one-voice marketing communicationsconcept (positioning consistency of positioning, message and tone across different communications in order to reach consumers with “one voice”) (Kitchen, 2014) and secondly “the BMI concept” which Such as advertising (Kitchen, 2014) Finally, the third concept focuses on the “Coordinated Marketing Communications.” This is the sum of all the tools involved such direct marketing, public relations and advertising. campaigns that achieve both the synergy of both increasing brand image and the influence of the consumers (Nowak, 1994)

Schultz, D. & Kitchen, PJ published a new definition on IMC in the year 2000, after disagreeing with the original definition of IMC by Don Schultz in 1991, this is because IMC was not just about marketing communications but also a strategical business process. ” (Kitchen P. J 2012) The new definition is given by “IMC is a strategic business process used to plan, develop, execute and test measurable measurable persuasion of customers, customers and prospects, and other that are targeted, internal and external audiences “. (Schultz, 2000)

Finally, Raman and Naik defined IMC in 2005 as “an IMC program plans and executes various marketing activities with consistency so that its total impact exceeds the sum of each activity. promotion, direct marketing and personal selling work together to maximize the communication impact on target consumers. ” (Naeem, B 2013)

The difference between Internet marketing communications and traditional marketing communications.

Marketing communications can be divided into two periods: Traditional marketing communications (before the Internet) and Internet marketing communications (with the Internet). New ways of exchange of information and new categories of interaction are possible because of the invention of the Internet and corresponding digital medium. Specifically, there are three aspects of the traditional and international marketing communications.


Interactivity is the typical feature of the Internet that was first proposed by John Deighton. [4] They argue that in the Internet business environment customers rather than the marketers usually start the interaction and they will be actively looking for the information that they need. Moreover, personal responses will be collected by corporation and their individual demands.

On the other hand, the media are pushing their messages to customers, in which consumers have a chance to give their feedback. Therefore, the interaction between the two parts is far and few between. On the other hand, Internet media have the attribute of “sweater” where customers on the Internet have the freedom to search the items of their wish. For instance, whenever a consumer type “flower” on Google’s search engine, an advertisement for a specific flower shop might occur on the top of the search result page by the program of the Google Adword . [5] Internet makes it possible for Googleto find the right time to the right place This way the traditional one-way “push” communication becomes the two-way “push and pull” interaction which is more active than before.


Compared with the traditional media, the Internet media can send “tailored” information to the specific needs of a consumer. Internet media. One of the first and Most Famous example of this is the personal attribute tailored services provided by Amazon in qui Consumers are called Expired by Their names and “tailored” Provided recommendations are selon Their previous purchase records. [6] Furthermore, besides “tailored” individual service, with the development and accumulation of consumers’ information on the Internet, mass customizationto be able to provide “tailored” content to a particular segment of consumers with similar interests. Doug is a Chinese social networking service that allows its users to rate the movie, TV dramas, music and concerts. It has grown to 200 million registered users in 2013 (founded in 2005). In addition, people who like the same TV drama, like Game of Thrones , or fans of the same movie star, such as Tom Cruise , will group together to discuss and share their feelings. This is where they can take advantage of mass customization to reinforce their brand equityin suitable target consumers. We can see that by doing so, the interaction and co-operation of companies and consumers are deepening, widening and multiplying in a variety of ways.

Industry restructuring

Restructuring followed by disintermediation and reintermediation is one of the essential features of the transition from traditional to Internet marketing communications. Internet can make the traditional distributors or retailers leave the business simply because of the Internet communication is less costly than them. significantly changed the distribution channels of personal computer selling in China by letting the customers order different parts of the computers and then pact together online before 2009, leaving tens of thousands of retailers in that field out of their jobs. In 2015, accounted for 22.9% of the Chinese online shopping market share. [7] Again, according to Financial Times, with the shifting trend of using mobile phones in China, [7] the next wave of restructuring by and its major competitors like Alibaba . In 2014,’s orders derived from mobile phones increased to 543%, compared with the last year’s quarter of the same period. Haoyu Shen, the chief executive of the , has written this article on its own company’s app rather than co-operating with Tecent , the Chinese second largest online corporation, although it has been invested in on March 2014. We can see business as a business ecommerce, has been constantly facing challenges and opportunities of disintermediation and reintermediation with the rapid shifts of Internet technology development.

Integrated marketing communications

Originally marketing is focused on the 4P’s (product, price, place and promotion) which narrowed companies’ perspectives to concentrate on their internal concepts. There was a change of direction as McCarthy’s model was outdated. The idea of ​​integrated marketing communications was first instigated in 1993 by Don E. Schultz. Schultz changed the 4P’s concept into the 4C’s model. The four parts include; consumer, communication, convenience and cost. This is the focus of a consumer orientation that has taken into consideration their needs and wants. Weak and plain messages have been evolving towards a larger scale platform for marketing and communication. The role of integrated marketing communications has been successfully integrated into the organization of the organization, which allows the message to be executed efficiently. [3]Businesses are now able to implement IMCs strategically within their business practices as they have progressed towards a holistic analysis of hearings internally and externally. Companies started to take a different angle when approaching the questions concerning the preferences of consumers. Finding out who is the target audience and how are they willing to buy, the willing amount of money they will spend for it, how the product will fulfill their needs and wants product and communication for ease of information being transmitted (Nagra, Kumari, Gopal, & Manjrekar, 2012). Changing the focus on what consumers desire leads to higher success being attained through IMC,

Expanding from this, Tom Duncan and Sandra E. Moriarty formed the concept of communication based relationship marketing. This model is one of the most influential consumers in the world (Lucia, del Barrio-Garcia, & Kitchen, 2012). However, Duncan and Moriarty initiated the communication of business and consumerism. As they pursued their studies, they found a strong and positive correlation between the interaction of communication and marketing as they both interconnected to create a dynamic element of marketing. The process of IMC through communication-based marketing goes through a sequential three stage process. Organizations with effective mixture of communication methods, In addition, the marketing methods are selected, after which the theory is adapted to the audience using a clear and efficient method (Vladmir, Miroslav, & Papic, 2012). Subsequently, these findings are as new for the future as they are. Developments from integrated marketing communications have evolved into three categories; inside-out approach, outside-in approach and cross-functional strategic approach. Subsequently, these findings are as new for the future as they are. Developments from integrated marketing communications have evolved into three categories; inside-out approach, outside-in approach and cross-functional strategic approach. Subsequently, these findings are as new for the future as they are. Developments from integrated marketing communications have evolved into three categories; inside-out approach, outside-in approach and cross-functional strategic approach.

The evolving nature of ICM will continue to transform its concepts especially with technologies being developed at a fast pace. Organizations are seeking strategic approaches to gain a competitive advantage which IMC delivers through the most dynamic and integrating mediums. [2] As we have identified that the cross-functional approach has the advantage of having the oversight of all departments and senior management to identify internal and external weaknesses, they are rectified to succeed in integration.

Integrated marketing communication categories

Inside-out approach

The inside-out approach to integrated marketing communications (Lucia, del Barrio-Garcia, & Kitchen, 2012). Granting this approach is solely based on the organization’s perspective. It demonstrates poor customer orientation. This approach is deprived of the organization’s strategic concept. The term used to describe the integration of marketing is the “one voice” which represents the one clear message organizations are wanting to achieve when communicating to consumers. IMC changes when applied to different organizations; however, the inside-out approach is stagnant, outdated method.

Outside-in approach

The outside-in approach to integrated marketing communications is seeking to understand the needs and wants of the consumer (Lucia, del Barrio-Garcia, & Kitchen, 2012). In addition to the previous category, this approach establishes significant progress. Organizations can gain in-depth knowledge based on consumers and therefore can accommodate the way they fulfill their requirements. Relationship marketing aids in building up a history of frequent conversation between organizations and stakeholders which creates trust (Gambetti & Schultz, 2015). Communication builds report that could prove to be profitable as they retain clientele. IMC approaches in a unique way as it operates backwards by concentrating on customers first, then determining the most effective course of marketing and communication methods to implement.

Cross-functional strategic approach

Cross-functional strategic approach of integrated marketing communications, concept of marketing, marketing, marketing, marketing, marketing, marketing, marketing, marketing, marketing (Lucia, del Barrio -Garcia, & Kitchen, 2012). Investing for the reorganization sparks change where all departments interconnect to work cohesively to managing and planning all stages of brand relationship. As a unified organization, the cross-functional process is a competitive advantage as they can achieve profitable relationships with customers and stakeholders. This can be achieved through the relationship between messages and messages from all departments through channels to the receivers. By sending strategic feedback and encouraging feedback from customers. The process is circular, not linear, at the beginning of the organization and the consumer and the relationship between the relationship and the relationship. the relationship is strong and the organization retains clientele.[3] Two-way communication is advantageous for a cross-functional and interactive approach to communication and evaluation (Valos, Habibi, Casidy, Driesener, & Maplestone, 2016 ). Implementing IMC is a flexible process due to the changing nature of the marketing dynamics.

Shifts that enable it

Businesses in the marketplace and the integrated marketplace as well as in the marketplace. This can be analyzed through the different shifts of integrated marketing communication channels, from the beginning of the product development. By using feedback from consumers, a business finitional status throughout the marketing of the product and connectivity from advertising to the consumer.

  1. Traditional marketing to digital market
  2. Mass media to specialized media
  3. Low accountability in market spending to high accountability in market spending
  4. Limited marketing connectivity to pervasive marketing connectivity
  5. Mass advertising to niche marketing

Therefore, developing more effective marketing channels, from business to consumer. Thus delivering value to the consumer and the end to improve the business or marketed product, thus allowing the business to reach the perfect competition within the market.

Within advertising agencies

As a large portion of successful integrated marketing communications is an important catalyst for the achievement of harmonious integrated marketing relationships within organizations (Laurie & Mortimer, 2011). {{Fact)) With the constant growth of technology sparking a need for evolving views on integrated marketers, agencies and practitioners have begun shifting from an attitude of “if it’s not advertising, let someone else do it” to “if it is anything to do with communication, we can do it” (Olatunji, 2011). Moving away from the traditional integrated marketing approach of linking media outlets, Recent developments in multi-level organizational integration strategies in order to integrate branding throughout the organization as a whole (Laurie & Mortimer, 2011). To gauge this development in 2010, exploratory research is conducted byCampaign ; a weekly magazine for the communications industry in the United Kingdom. It was aimed at analyzing the effects of Kliatchko (2008), and Duncan & Moriarity (1998).

The checklist was as followed:

  • Level of integration 1, 2, or 3
  • Branding issues
  • Customer-centric
  • Involvement of internal staff
  • Media synergy

The results of this study have been developed in the United Kingdom, especially in the fields of media synergy and branding, 6 out of 10 In the role of integrated marketing and communication, the role of the internal market is explained (Laurie & Mortimer, 2011).

Another example of research focused on assessing the use of integrated marketing communication in the United States.

  1. What is the pattern of integration in Nigeria?
  2. What are the dominant integrated marketing communication tools in use by advertising agencies?
  3. In what ways have the adoption of integrated marketing communications in Nigeria?

The results of this study showed that these organizations had full intent of being a fully integrated marketing communications organization, they did not possess the financial capabilities of doing so; However, this is not the case that most of these organizations have moved in the direction of fully integrated organizations.

These studies indicate clearly that they are growing in the market sector and are becoming full-service integrated marketing communication services for customers. at the fault of the agencies themselves. As according to Laurie et al. (2011) “it is clear that a number of viewpoints of the definition of IMC and its meaning still exists in the literature, which is not helpful for the client or agency advancement …” and that “evidence suggests that confusion and misunderstandings are still a significant barrier to [integrated communication managements] implementation at the higher levels of an organization “.

Customer-focused versus customer-centric

A recent revelation in integrated marketing communication is the change in the role of the customer within the business world. Due to the fast-paced growth of technology, customers are rapidly gaining more power through such forums; now with capabilities of reaching a wider audience through the use of social media. Recognizing this power shift, organizations have begun to re-evaluate their typical marketing strategies and customer approaches from the traditional customer-focused attitude to the wide-spreading customer-centric method in order to develop a more integrated strategy.

A customer-focused approach can be defined as “when they learn more about the clothes of the customer so they can identify opportunities for cross-selling etc.” (Laurie & Mortimer, 2011). While this type of approach can be viewed as entirely satisfactory, Kliachko (2008) introduced a contrasting concept which concentrates on “working from the outside in” and promotes a different perspective on organizations. When an organization adopts a customer-centric technique, they are seen to be passive receivers of marketing techniques and focus on listening to their needs and striving to satisfy them; integrating the customer into the process (Laurie & Mortimer, 2011). Many organizations are yet to relinquish such control,Campaign magazine, which can only be suspected to have a negative impact on marketing (Laurie & Mortimer, 2011). This view, however, is rebutted by Saihtiri et al. (2014) who claims that “achieving superiority in customer-centric performance is then rewarded through stronger brand performance in the marketplace”.


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Integrated marketing communication can be defined as “[a] concept of marketing communications planning that has been added value of [a] comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines – for example, general advertising, direct response, sales promotion These methods provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communication impact “(Prasad & Raman, 2003). This definition highlights two key factors important to successful integrated communications marketing; clarity and consistency. The focus of integrated marketing communications is heavily based on all areas of the organization; “one voice across everything” (Laurie & Mortimer, 2011). By linking all communication in each media outlet, and so creating synergy, thus, enabling organizations to create a higher impact with their message. As according to Laurie et al. (2011), “A variety of media can have a strong impact on the overall effectiveness of a campaign, and one medium can improve the effectiveness of another”. In spite of the fact that it does not have a significant impact on a single media source, when it is integrated into a larger-scale harmonious relationship with multiple other media platforms, continuing consistency and reaching a wider audience.

Successfully coordinating synergy among all media platforms is not the final step in a rewarding integrated marketing communications plan. The following is an understanding of the role of the organization and the role of the organization and the role of the organization. culture, branding and staffing. It is obvious from previous integrated marketing communications that the role of external and internal staff is key in reaching the highest level of integrated marketing communication planning; it helps to coordinate and encompass all levels of organizations (Laurie & Mortimer, 2011).


No support from senior management

It is vital for an organization that implements integrated marketing communications to the commitment of all levels of employees, including senior management. [1] The union between both marketing and corporate goals should coincide and support simultaneously. IMC can deliver for the organization to benefit from (Valos, Habibi, Casidy, Driesener, & Maplestone, 2016). Higher levels of the business need to coincide with the efforts of staff in the strategic planning to grasp that IMC’s program is valuable.

Customers are confused about the concept

Some companies such as advertising agencies could possibly take advantage of the integrated marketing communications model, due to the stress they receive from customers and budgets being reduced. [1] The introduction of new technology broadens the boundaries for advertising elements to endeavor with such avenues like the internet. Their focus is on the core principles of IMC which is to integrate the elements together, as they are less effective individually. Also, their clients may not grasp the BMI concept as an essential attribute, hence, they perceive IMC as saving money due to the strategic juxtaposition.

Organization is too specialized

One of the core fundamentals of integrated marketing communications is that of the focus aspires toward a customer orientation. [1] In spite of that, the purpose of some organizations has not yet been adopted. Examples include public relations, direct marketing and advertising.

Conflict within organization

Trending to implement integrated marketing communications. [1] Staff may not perform their tasks and functions which jeopardize the work environment. For IMC to be successful the culture of the organization needs to accommodate an open perspective where communication between the different departments are managed tactically. [9]Individuals reactions to the new restructure will be different, as well as to the other side of the market. Miroslav, & Papic, 2012). A corporate structure may not require IMC due to their culture being incompatible for integration.

Removing barriers

Integrated marketing communication is the process of communicating an idea in order to attract customers using an array of tools. It is the process of sending a message to a receiver (Communications, 2016). Depending on the company and the type of product or service they offer, To understand how integrated marketing communication can benefit a business, three main areas will be discussed. These areas being who the Sender is? Who is the Receiver? And what tools can the message be sent to the receiver?

Practical Solutions Towards Improving marketing strategies by using CIM can be done through two Differing marketing concepts the four P’s gold the oven C’s . Also, the use of coding and decoding should be followed, all of which should be financially supported.

A sender is someone who is willing to communicate with an idea to a receiver (Oxford, 2016). This can be an individual or a group. It is a person who is interested in a product or a service. Marketers must first understand who the brand is in order to successfully implement marketing communications. Who is Staples? (Staples, 2016) In order to answer this, they must consider what value they offer their customers. What this company is proposing is a one-stop shop for all office needs. They offer a wide range of office supplies, safe and on time delivery, competitive pricing and excellent customer service. Staples is marketing its efforts on advertising those values. Their slogan “To make more happen, everyday”. This theme is most appropriate because it attracts their target audience. Workers have little time on their hands, the product they offer will give them the ability to make life easier; by doing so, they save time. In today’s fast-paced lifestyle, the customer is most likely to use the product. Staples have successfully taken the necessary steps in order to communicate their values ​​to their customers. They have this understanding of who they are and who they should be targeting.

Branding plays a significant role in marketing communications. It is the process of establishing the identity of a product or service within the market, and differentiating itself from its competitors (WebFinance, 2016a). In order to identify which tool should be used in communicating a business’s vision, the conglomerate must understand what their brand stands for and their target market is.

The consumer is this person (Collins, 2016). People receive messages in two different ways: central (MedicineNet, 2016) and peripheral (Linde, 2016). Central receivers require extrinsic motivation (WebFinance, 2016b) in order to be attracted, some of the commonly used tools to capture this type of audience are catalogs and discount advertisements. Peripheral deals with the use of emotion in order to get a customer interested. For example, ADIDAS sponsoring the All Blacks (AIG, 2016). The customers will purchase ADIDAS products simply because the team they love wears them. All they need to do is advertise their sponsorship. However, it is important to note that consumers may be both extrinsically and intrinsically motivated to use a product or service that is being offered.

To take advantage of the first, aggressive advertising must be conducted and ‘on sale’ type deals must be offered. This is because someone who receives a message centrally listens to reason, knows a lot about the industry or does not know why he needs the product or service. If the best deal is offered, we can expect that the customers will take part in the service. Businesses who sell a product that is not necessary to use this strategy. Conglomerates within a highly competitive industry should use this theory as well. We will use the sports shoe customers as an example. This product is in the stage of the product life cycle, as a result, there is a high level of competition. The consumer gains the advantage of choice and access to options and information. Aggressive advertising will reach those who buy on impulse and discounts. Retailers should implement these two strategies in order to highlight a customer should visit their store.

To be intrinsically motivated (Harackiewics, 2000) someone who takes part in a service, one must use emotion. There are a number of ways for a business to be so, one example is the direct comparison of a product to a familiar context, for example, a movie. A good example of such advertisement is the Brokeback Speights commercial (Speights, 2006).

What are some communication tools and how can they use them? The most effective marketing tool today is the use of social media (Technopedia, 2016). Twitter, Facebook and other services provide businesses with access to consumers all over the world. What methods can marketers use to take advantage of these services? They can use key opinion leaders (Matter, 2016). These people generally have adequate knowledge of the industry, hold credible titles for example members of parliament or a large number of followers. Therefore, consumers are likely to follow the opinions they post about a product or service.

Key opinion leaders drive new thoughts. Donald Trump, who is currently running for a chance to be the leading candidate of the Republican Party (Team, 2016). UPDATE (2017) – He is the current President of the United States. One of his strategies is to target the issue of immigrants entering America. He states that he’s going to build a bigger wall in order to keep them out. Although his approach is controversial, many Americans have thought about their own minds. Some like-minded people will agree with Donald Trump’s views because it is an opinion that resonates with citizens. Leaders also have the ability to invoke a product or service. The opinion does not have to be an existing one. They have the ability to convince consumers that they have nothing to do with their everyday life (for example, voters who do not know that immigration has a problem in America).

Other tools which businesses can use are touch points (SurveyMonkey, 2016), other languages, artwork for example logos and slogans. An example of the first is the student service center at the Auckland University of Technology (Technology, 2016). The service enables students to interact with the university. Other examples are Facebook group pages. In other words, the touch point is the process of creating a service that allows consumers to communicate with the brand. Retail stores are another good example of touch point communications.

Nikein the sale of sports gears ranging from shoes to apparel (Game, 2016). Originally they established themselves as a business that offers technical footwear. Today, they are known globally and have a following loyal to their brand. Consumers now, they buy their products because of the brand rather than the technical aspects it offers. Whether it is through sponsoring players or the event itself, this is an example of the use of Key Opinion leaders. Michael Jordan (Rovell, 2016) is one of the most popular sports people in the world. In his early days, Nike was successful in gaining Jordan’s endorsements, thus ensuring loyal fans would follow what he said or what he wore. For example, the introduction of the Nike Air Jordan (Liquid,

Artwork is a form of communication that engages with the consumer’s emotions. Logos need to be carefully designed because they are a representation of who is company is (Newspapers, 2016). Kathmandu (Ltd., 2016) have over the years, changed their logo many times. Why have they done this? The scope of their target audience has been changed and therefore has changed. They were not just changing their logo but also what they stood for.

Slogans (Taube, 2014) are a quick and easy way to communicate what a business stands for. However, finding out which is best. An example of a slogan that works is video game developer EA Games'”challenge everything”. Playing an EA game – for example, NFL 2016 – is almost like playing a real game of football. Although it can be fairly predictable, the strategies used in the process are similar. “Challenge everything” means that in the cyber world, anyone can be experts at any sports, as long as they are willing to take the challenge. It means that the dreams that people have had about being a sport can become a reality as long as they play their games. This is an example of an effective slogan because it tells the consumer what they stand for and resonates with many consumers.

Encoding conveys the meaning of a word, colors, pictures, signs, symbols or music. Therefore, the differing channels of communication act as a ladder towards the consumer understanding the message being produced by the business / brand. This related to the concepts of the oven P, price, product, place and promotion. By the encoding of differing advertisements by their placement / where the consumer will notice the product, and such promotion as billboards, pamphlets and free samples.

Decoding is the process of interpreting messages and links to the power of correct encoding and the ability of the target audience to deconstruct the meaning or meanings of a product. Therefore, making feedback to two-way street depending on the reaction of integrated marketing communications, from the target market to business. This is where co-creation for a business helps different ways of interaction, personalization, customization and reconfiguration of the business of delivery to the target audience. If the frame of reference is not understood by the target market, the communications of the product will not expand nor expand.

These two aspects have been achieved successfully by successful interoperable cross channels of P’s, oven C’s, encoding & decoding. Therefore, reaching a greater impact financially in the marketing of the product.

Linear communication model

The Linear communication model can inspire a business in the long term by the format of different information, ideas and emotions to the target market, the model itself shows how the different components of encoding, decoding, noise and feedback can contribute to the message a product is produced. And can determine the success of the market by the realm of understanding. As encoding creates the message, which then can be interpreted by the training of the target market, thus avoiding noise and achieving the understanding of an integrated communication message to the target audience.


First defined by the American Association of Advertising Agencies in 1989, IMC was developed to address the needs of businesses more than just standard advertising. The 4As originally coined the term “new advertising”; However, this title did not include other aspects of the term “IMC” – most notably, those beyond traditional advertising processes of simply advertising. [10]

Overall, an influx of new marketplace trends in the late 20th century spurred organizations to shift from the standard advertising approach to the IMC approach:

  • Decreasing message impact and credibility : The growing number of commercial messaging made more difficult for a single message to have a noteworthy effect.
  • Decreasing costs of databases : The cost of storing and retrieving names. This decline is becoming more effective.
  • Increasing customer expertise : Clients of marketing and public relations firms became more educated about advertising policies, procedures and tactics. Customers began to realize that television advertising was not the only way to reach consumers.
  • Increasing mergers and acquisitions of agencies : Many top public relations firms and advertising agencies became partners or partners with other communication firms. These mergers allowed for more creativity, and the expansion of communication from only advertising, to other disciplines such as event planning and promotion.
  • Increasing global marketing : There was a rapid influx of advertising competition from foreign countries. Companies soon realized that if they did not conduct business outside their own country, they were now competing in global marketing .
  • Increasing media and audience fragmentation : With the exception of the decline of newspapers, media outlets, such as magazines and television stations, increased from 1980 to 1990. Additional, companies could use new technologies and computers to target background or place of residence.
  • Increasing number of integrated products : Manufacturers of a product with a number of different products. Therefore, a unique marketing and branding approach was crucial to attracting customer attention and increasing sales.

Model and stages

Tactical marketing communications

Of business and communication related to the business and marketing of business and marketing. Once this stage is triggered, the business should be based on the understanding of the marketplace. This produced through key marketing skills of advertising, promotions, direct selling and personal events. Therefore, increasing the chance of sales in the competitive market, through the channels / touch points of integrated marketing communication. Therefore, encouraging sales to the target market, in order to avoid the chance of a decline in marketing position.

Redefining integrated marketing communication

Elements of tactical Integrated marketing communications. This is mainly about the work of the public, and the public has a business relationship with the market. The strategy itself connects to “Tactical marketing communications” by the aspects of “sight and sound” therefore, starting from the beginning of the market and the targeting of market values.

Applications of strategic marketing integration

Firms becoming highly practical with their approach to marketing their business strategy, eventually gaining more financially compared to differing businesses. Also, in addition, motivating the market repetitively or more frequently. Financially the achievements of a business pricing of a product can fluctuate the demand of a product, this avoiding downfalls in the market.

Financial and strategic integration

The final stage shows the highest level of integration of the evaluation of marketing strategies and the strategic planning of one’s target market understanding. Therefore, making the business re-evaluate its financial infrastructure, marketing expenditures and its marketing communication to achieve growth and value externally and internally throughout one’s company.


  1. Have objectives been meet?
  2. Evaluate alternatives
  3. Develop efficient and effective communication
  4. Help defend budgets
  5. Enrich planning and managing
  6. Provide controls

Marketing communications framework

The marketing communications planning framework (MCPF) is a model for the creation of an ICM plan . Created by Chris Fill, [11] senior review for the Chartered Institute of Marketing , the MCPF is Intended to solve the inadequacies of other frameworks.


See also

  • Advertising – historical and social aspects of advertising
  • Advertising management – focuses on the practical managerial approach to advertising
  • Brand awareness
  • Co-marketing
  • Consumer behavior
  • Marketing Communications
  • Marketing mix
  • Media relations

External links

  • Marketing Communications Council of Europe – Professional Association (Europe-wide)


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