Social marketing

Social marketing is the use of marketing theory, skills and practices to achieve social change. It has the primary of achieving ” social good .” Traditional commercial marketing are primarily financial, although they can have positive social effects as well. In the context of public health, social marketing would promote general health, raise awareness and induce changes in behavior. To see social marketing as standard commercial marketing practices to achieve non-commercial goals is an oversimplified view .

Social marketing seeks to develop and integrate marketing concepts with other approaches to social change. Social marketing aims to influence behaviors that benefit individuals and communities for the greater social good. The goals are effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable. [1]

Increasingly, social marketing is described as having “two parents.” The “social parent” uses social science and social policy approaches. The “marketing parent” uses commercial and public sector marketing approaches. [2] Recent years have also witnessed a broader focus. Social marketing now goes beyond individual influencing behavior. It promotes socio-cultural and structural change relevant to social issues. [3] Consequently, social marketing scholars are starting to advocate for a broader definition of social marketing. The new emphasis is on the effects of efficiency and effectiveness and the process of equity, equity and sustainability. [4]


KT Chandy at the Indian Institute of Management in Kolkata, India, The first documented evidence of the deliberate use of social marketing . Chandler and colleagues proposed, and implemented, a national government program with high quality, government brand condoms distributed and sold throughout the country at low cost. The program included an integrated consumer marketing campaign with active point of sale promotion. Retailers have been trained to sell the product aggressively, and a new organization was created to implement the program. [5] In developing countries, the use of social marketing to HIV prevention, control of childhood diarrhea (through the use oforal re-hydration therapies ), malaria control and treatment, point-of-use water treatment , on-site sanitation methods and the provision of basic health services. [6]

Health Promotion Jobs in the 1980s. In the United States, the National High Blood Pressure Education Program [7] and the community heart disease prevention studies in Pawtucket, Rhode Island and at Stanford University [8]demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach to address population-based risk factor behavior change. Notable early developments also took place in Australia. These included the Victoria Cancer Council’s developing anti-tobacco campaign “Quit” (1988) and “SunSmart” (1988), its campaign against skin cancer which had the slogan ” Slip! Slop! Slap! ” [9]

Since the 1980s, the field has been expanded to include active living communities, disaster preparedness and response, ecosystem and species conservation, environmental issues, development of volunteer or indigenous workforces, financial literacy, global threats of antibiotic resistance, health, prevention, landowner education, marine conservation and ocean sustainability, patient-centered health care, reducing health disparities, sanitation demand, sustainable consumption, water treatment systems and youth gambling problems, among other social needs (See [10] [11] ).

On the front, by 2007, the United Kingdom announced the development of its first social marketing strategy for all aspects of health. [12] In 2010, the US national health objectives [13] included increasing the number of states of health reporting and social health promotion. in social marketing.

Two other public health applications include the CDC’s CDCynergy Training and Software Application [14] and SMART (Social Marketing and Assessment Response Tool) in the US [15]

US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the UK, and a key strategy in the area of ​​strategic social marketing approach. Publications such as “Choosing Health” in 2004, [12] ” It’s our health! ” In 2006 and ” Health Challenge England ” in 2006, represent steps to achieve a strategic and operational use of social marketing. In India, AIDS control programs are widely used in social marketing and social work. Most of the social workers are professionally trained for this task. quote needed ]

A variation of social marketing has emerged as a way to foster more sustainable behavior. CBSM, Doug McKenzie-Mohr, Canadian Environmental Psychologist (CBSM). [16]Cysm uses tools that provide information and is useful in the context of change of behavior. Among the tools and techniques used by CBSM are focus groups and surveys (to discover barriers) and commitments, prompts, social norms, social diffusion, feedback and incentives (to change behavior). The tools of CBSM have been used to promote sustainable behavior in many areas, including energy conservation, [17] environmental regulation [18] and recycling. [19]

In recent years, the concept of strategic social marketing has emerged, which identifies that social change requires action at the individual, community, socio-cultural, political and environmental level, and that social marketing can and should influence policy, strategy and operational tactics achieve pro-social outcomes. [3]

Other social marketing can be deemed at least, at least by proponents, as socially unacceptable. One of the most notable is People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), who for many years has waged social marketing campaigns against the use of natural fur products. The campaigns’ has been subject to dispute. [20]

Not all social marketing campaigns are effective everywhere. For example, anti-smoking campaigns such as World No Tobacco Day While Being Successful (in concert with government tobacco controls) in Europe and in Europe, have been less effective in other parts of the world. such as China, India and Russia. [21] (See also: Prevalence of tobacco consumption )


Social marketing uses the benefits of doing social good to secure and maintain customer engagement . In social marketing the distinguishing feature is “primary focus on social good, and it is not a secondary outcome.” Citation needed ] Not all public sector and not-for-profit marketing is social marketing.

Public sector bodies can use standard marketing methods to improve the quality of their services. This can be very important but it should not be confused with social marketing where the focus is on achieving specific behavioral goals with specific audiences in relation to social issues (eg, health, sustainability, recycling, etc.). For example, a 3-month marketing campaign to encourage people to get a H1N1 vaccine is more tactical in nature and should not be considered social marketing. A campaign that encourages and reminds people to get regular check-ups and all of their vaccinations when they’re supposed to encourage a long-term behavior change that benefits society. It can be considered social marketing.

Social marketing can be confused with commercial marketing. A commercial marketer can only seek to influence a buyer to purchase a product. Social marketers have more difficult goals. They want to make possible difficult and long-term behavior changes in target populations, which may or may not involve purchasing a product. For example, reducing smoking or encouraging use of condoms.

Social marketing is sometimes seen as a customer base of non-profit organizations, health services groups, the government agency. However, the goal of social change is not restricted to this narrow spectrum of organizations. Corporations, for example, can be clients. Public relations or social affairs departments may champion social causes such funding for the arts, which would involve social marketing.

Social marketing should not be confused with the societal marketing concept which was a forerunner of sustainable marketing in integrating issues of social responsibility into commercial marketing strategies. In contrast to that, social marketing uses commercial marketing theories, tools and techniques to social issues.

Social Marketing Applies to a “customer oriented” approach and uses the concepts and tools used by commercial marketers in pursuit of social goals like anti-smoking campaigns or fund raising for NGOs.

Social marketers must create competitive advantage by constantly adapting to instigating change. With climate change in mind, adaptations to market changes are likely to be successful if actions are guided by knowledge of the forces shaping market behaviors and insights that enable the development of sustainable competitive advantages. [22]


In 2006, Jupitermedia announced its “Social Marketing” service, [23] with which it aims to enable website owners to profit from social media . Despite Jupiter stuck with the name protests from the social marketing communities over the perceived hijacking of the term. [24] However, Jupiter’s approach is more correctly (and commonly) referred to as social media optimization .


Many scholars ascribe the beginning of the field of social marketing to an article published by GD Wiebe in the Winter 1951-1952 edition of Public Opinion Quarterly . [25] In it, Wiebe posed a rhetorical question: “Why can not you sell brotherhood and rational thinking like you can sell soap?” He then went on to discuss what he saw to the challenges of social selling. If it was a commodity, then, it is a unique discipline from marketing, but Wilkie & Moore (2003) [26] notes that the marketing discipline has been involved with questions about the intersection of marketing and society since its earliest days as a discipline.

A decade later, organizations such as the KfW Entwicklungsbank in Germany, the Canadian International Development Agency, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in the Netherlands, UK Department for International Development, US Agency for International Development , World Health Organization and the World Bank Social Sponsorship Africa, Sri Lanka, and elsewhere. [27] [28]

The next milestone in the evolution of social marketing was published in the Journal of Marketing by Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman . [29] Kotler and Zaltman coined the term ‘social marketing’ and defined it as’ the design, implementation, and control of programs, the influence of the acceptability of social ideas and the involvement of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and marketing research. ” They conclude that “social marketing appears to represent a relationship between the behavior of the scientist and the knowledge of the behavior of the person.”

Craig Lefebvre and June Flora Posted in public in 1988, [8] where it has been most widely used and explored. They note that there is a need for “broad scale, broad-based, behavior change focused programs” to improve public health (the community of prevention of cardiovascular diseases in their respective projects) and outlined eight essential components of social marketing that still hold today :

  1. A consumer orientation to achieve organizational (social) goals
  2. An emphasis on the voluntary exchanges of goods and services between consumers
  3. Research in audience analysis and segmentation strategies
  4. The use of formative research in product and message design and the pretesting of these materials
  5. An analysis of distribution (or communication)
  6. Use of the marketing mix -promotion and blending product, price, place and promotion
  7. A process tracking system with both integrative and control functions
  8. A management process that involves problem analysis, planning, implementation and feedback functions [30]

Speaking of what they termed “social change campaigns”, Roberto Kotler and Ned Roberto introduced the subject by writing, “A social change campaign is an organized effort accept, modify, or abandon certain ideas, attitudes, practices or behavior. ” Their 1989 text was updated in 2002 by Philip Kotler , Ned Roberto and Nancy Lee. [31] In 2005, University of Stirling was the first university to open a dedicated research institute to Social Marketing, [32]while in 2007, Middlesex University became the first university to offer a specialized postgraduateprogram in Health & Social Marketing. [33]

In recent years there is an important development to distinguish between “strategic social marketing” and “operational social marketing”.

Much of the literature and case examples focus on operational social marketing, using it to achieve specific behavioral goals in relation to different audiences and topics. However, there is no need for more information on social marketing and marketing. Here is the focus on the subject of effective and efficient work.

Social marketing is also being explored as a method for social innovation, a framework for increasing the adoption of evidence-based practices among professionals and organizations, and a core skill for public sector managers and social entrepreneurs. It is being approached to design more effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable approaches to social networks and to social networks. [34]

Many examples exist of social marketing research, with over 120 papers compiled in a six volume set. [11]). For example, research now shows ways to reduce the intentions of people to engage in dangerous driving. Martin, Lee, Weeks, and Kaya (2013) suggest that understanding consumer personality and how to view others is important. People were shown ads talking about the harmful effects of binge drinking. People who value close friends and family who are close to you. People who were loners or who did not know close friends to their senses of who they were. A similar pattern is shown for showing a person driving at dangerous speeds. This suggests that you are in a position to make a difference in your life.[35]

See also

Main article: List of topics related to public relations and propaganda
  • Agenda-setting theory
  • Cause-related marketing
  • Development communication
  • Financial literacy
  • Health promotion
  • Jay Winsten
  • Media intelligence
  • The Tipping Point


  1. Jump up^ International Social Marketing Association, European Social Marketing Association & Australian Association of Social Marketing (2013),Consensus Definition of Social Marketing
  2. Jump up^ Truss, Aiden (2010). Jeff French; Clive Blair-Stevens; Dominic McVey; Rowena Merritt, eds. Social Marketing and Public Health: Theory and Practice . Oxford University Press. p. 20.
  3. ^ Jump up to:b French, Jeff; Gordon, Ross (2015). Strategic Social Marketing . Wise. ISBN  9781446248621 .
  4. Jump up^ Saunders, SG; Barrington, DJ & Sridharan, S. (2015). “Redefining social marketing: Beyond behavioral change”. Journal of Social Marketing . 5 (2): 160-168. doi : 10.1108 / JSOCM-03-2014-0021 .
  5. Jump up^ Chandy, KT, Balakrishman, TR, Kantawalla, JM, Mohan, K., Sen, NP, Gupta, SS & Srivastva, S. (1965). Proposals for family planning promotion: A marketing plan. Studies in Family Planning; 1 (6): 7-12.
  6. Jump up^ Lefebvre, RC (2011). An integrative model for social marketing. Journal of Social Marketing; 1: 54-72.
  7. Jump up^ Roccella, EJ & Ward, GW (1984). The National High Blood Pressure Education Program: A description of its utility as a generic program model. Health Education Quarterly, 11 (3): 225-242
  8. ^ Jump up to:b Lefebvre, RC & Flora, JA (1988). Social Marketing and Public Health Intervention (Portable Document Format). Health Education Quarterly; (3): 300, 301.
  9. Jump up^ “VicHealth History: Major Events and Milestones” . VicHealth . Victorian Health Promotion Foundation.
  10. Jump up^ Lefebvre, RC (2013) Social marketing and social change: Strategies and tools for improving health, well-being and the environment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  11. ^ Jump up to:b Lefebvre, RC (Ed). Social marketing: Six volume set. London: SAGE Publications, 2013.
  12. ^ Jump up to:b UK Department of Health, Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier , Cmd.6374 2004.
  13. Jump up^ US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Communication and Health Information Technology
  14. Jump up^ “CDC – CDCynergy (NCHM)” . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006-06-27 . Retrieved 2007-10-19 .
  15. Jump up^ Neiger, Brad L .; Rosemary Thackeray; Michael D. Barnes; James F. McKenzie (2003). “Social Marketing Positioning and Planning for Health Education” . American Journal of Health Studies . 18 (2/3): 75-81 . Retrieved 2012-01-13 .
  16. Jump up^ McKenzie-Mohr, D. (2000). Fostering sustainable behavior through community-based social marketing. American Psychologist, 55 (5), 531-537.
  17. Jump up^ Schultz PW, Nolan JM, Cialdini RB, Goldstein NJ, Griskevicius Vladas (2007). The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms. Psychological Science, 18 (5), 429-434.
  18. Jump up^ Kennedy, A. (2010). Using Community-Based Social Marketing Techniques to Enhance Environmental Regulation. Sustainability, 2 (4), 1138-1160
  19. Jump up^ Haldeman, T. & Turner, J. (2009). Implementing a community-based social marketing program to increase recycling. Social Marketing Quarterly, 15 (3), 114-127.
  20. Jump up^ Peek, Liz (November 21, 2006). “Warm Weather Torments City Furriers” . New York Sun . Retrieved 12 March 2013 .
  21. Jump up^ Andrei Fedyashin, [Opinion & Analysis: World No Tobacco Day, Futile Attempt to Curb Smoking.], RiaNovosti (Russia), May 29, 2009
  22. Jump up^ Shocker, Allan D., Rajendra K. Srivastava, and Robert W. Ruekert. “Challenges and Opportunities Facing Brand Management: An Introduction to the Special Issue.” Journal of Marketing Research 31.2 (1994): 149. Web.
  23. Jump up^ Lefebvre, R. Craig (2006-08-30). “Hello Jupiter? Anyone Home?” . On Marketing and Social Change . Retrieved 2006-09-01 .
  24. Jump up^ Schatsky, David (2006-09-01). “Social Marketing vs. Social Marketing”. Jupiterresearch Analyst Weblogs . Jupitermedia . Retrieved 2006-09-01 .
  25. Jump up^ Wiebe, GD (1951-1952). “Merchandising Commodities and Citizenship on Television”. Public Opinion Quarterly . 15 (Winter): 679. doi : 10.1086 / 266,353 .
  26. Jump up^ Wilkie, WL, & Moore, ES (2003). Scholarly research in marketing: Exploring the “4 eras” of thought development. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing; 22 (2): 116-146.
  27. Jump up^ Baker, Michael (2012). The Marketing Book . Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 696.
  28. Jump up^ Lefebvre, R. Craig. Social Marketing and Social Change: Strategies and Tools to Improve Health, Well-Being and the Environment \ year = 2013 . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. p. 4.
  29. Jump up^ Kotler, Philip; Gerald Zaltman (July 1971). “Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change” (PDF) . Journal of Marketing . 35 : 3-12. doi : 10.2307 / 1249783 .
  30. Jump up^ Lefebvre, R. Craig; June A. Flora (1988). “Social Marketing and Public Health Intervention” (Portable Document Format) . Health Education Quarterly . John Wiley & Sons. 15 (3): 300, 301. doi : 10.1177 / 109019818801500305 . Retrieved 2008-04-30 .
  31. Jump up^ Kotler, Philip, Ned Roberto and Nancy Lee. Social Marketing: Improving the Quality of Life, SAGE, 2002. (ISBN 0-7619-2434-5)
  32. Jump up^
  33. Jump up^ Source: “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 2010-05-24 . Retrieved 2010-05-02 .
  34. Jump up^ Lefebvre, RC (2013). Social marketing and social change: Strategies and tools for improving health, well-being and the environment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  35. Jump up^ Martin, Brett AS Christina KC Lee, Clinton Weeks and Maria Kaya (2013),”How to stop binge drinking and speeding motorists: Effects of relational-interdependent self construable and self-referencing is attitudes social marketing Toward”,Journal of Consumer Behavior, 12, 81-90.