Outline of marketing

The following outline is provided as an overview of the topical guide to marketing:


Main article: Marketing

Marketing can be defined as the social and managerial processes by which products, services, and value are exchanged in order to fulfill individual needs or wants. These processes include, but are not limited to, advertising ,promotion , distribution , and product management .

Core concepts in marketing

Marketers can sell goods or services directly to consumers, known as business to customers (B2C marketing); commercial organizations (known as business to business marketing or B2B ), to government ; to not-for-profit organizations ( Not-for-profit orgnanization (NFP) ) or some combination of any of these.

Actors and relationships

The Consumer : At the center of the marketing framework is the consumer .

Typically, the consumer refers to the end-user – but this can be an individual or group such as a household , family unit or organization .
In addition, marketers need to May Consider the roles of influencers Such As opinion leaders Who wears increasingly means clustering Such As Social Media to Develop customer to customer networks of influence.
Sales staff : may go by various names including: sales representative ; Arabber ; Bazaari ; Costermonger ; Hawker (trade) ; Huckster ; Merchant ; Peddler ; Retailer ; Street vendor gold Vendor
Selling situations & relationships : The role of actors in a variety of situations. Sales activities involve many different types of customer relationships – from simple transactional exchange through to long-term, enduring customer relationships .

Needs, wants and demand

Marketers typically begin planning with a detailed understanding of customer needs and wants.

A need is required for a healthy life (eg food, water, shelter).
A want is a desire, wish or aspiration.

When they want to buy power , they have the potential to become demands .

Nature of exchange

Exchange , the act of giving or taking one thing of value in return for another is central to marketing activities.

Not all transactions involve financial transactions , but may also involve barter , contra dealing or other form of trade .

Objects of exchange

The object of exchange can include: Goods ; services or experiences ; concepts or ideas ; causes and may even involve celebrity marketing

Perceptions of value

  • Co-creation of value
  • Customer value proposal
    • Participatory design
  • Utility
  • Value proposition
  • Value (marketing)
    • Value-in-use

Foundation economic concepts

Given that marketing has its roots in economics, it shares many foundations concepts with that discipline. Most practicing marketers will have a working knowledge of basic economic concepts and theories.

  • Business model
  • Core
  • Core competency
  • Consumer demand
    • Demand curve
    • Demand-led growth
    • Demand response
    • Derived demand
    • Inverse demand function
    • Law of demand
    • Law of supply
    • Supply and demand
  • Economies of scale
  • Economies of scope
  • Experience curve effects
  • First-mover advantage
  • Market
  • Marketing ethics
  • Product differentiation
  • Sharing economy
  • Sustainable competitive advantage
  • Switching costs
    • Switching barriers
  • Transaction costs
  • Value

Planning levels and planning tools

Planning levels

Marketing planning is just one facet of the overall company’s planning. Marketing plans must therefore take their guidance from the overall strategic plan or business plan . Most companies produce a strategic plan and a managerial plan (also known as an operational plan). The distinction between strategic planning and management planning is that they are two phases with different goals.

Strategic planning is fundamentally concerned with the policies that will improve the firm’s competitive position . Strategic planning is sometimes called “long-term planning” (say 3-7 years) while “management planning” can be carried out for a specific program. duration) gold carried out annually. Strategic plans typically include a statement of the firm’s vision and mission . The Marketing Strategy is a plan that shows how the firm’s marketing will help you achieve the overall strategic goals.


Marketing marketing is focused on developing the marketing program or marketing mix (also known as the 4Ps ) and is concerned with the implementation of specific action plans designed to achieve objective, measurable targets ( SMART objectives ). Marketing management plans are typically prepared on an annual planning cycle, but can be prepared for a shorter period of time, for a new launch, a new logo, a corporate change or a repositioning campaign.

Marketing strategies

Main article: Marketing strategies
Main article: Strategic marketing
  • Barriers to entry
  • Barriers to exit
  • Market dominance strategies
  • Porter’s generic strategies
    • Cost leadership
    • differentiation
  • Mass customization
  • Mission-driven marketing
Growth strategies
Main article: Growth platforms
  • Aggressiveness strategies
  • Ansoff Matrix (also known as the product / market growth matrix)
    • Market development
    • Market penetration
    • Product development
    • Diversification (marketing strategy)
  • Growth platforms
  • Growth planning
  • Horizontal integration
  • Innovation
  • Inorganic growth
    • Mergers and acquisitions
  • Innovation strategies
  • Organic growth
  • Profit impact on marketing strategy
  • Vertical integration

Marketing warfare strategies

Main article: Marketing warfare strategies
  • Defensive strategy (marketing)
  • Flanking marketing warfare strategies
  • Guerrilla marketing warfare strategies
    • Guerrilla Marketing (also known as Attack Marketing )
  • Offensive marketing warfare strategies

Planning tools and techniques

  • Marketing plan
  • Loose management
  • Implementation and control
  • Positioning analysis

Analytical techniques used in marketing planning and development

Marketers draw on a very wide variety of techniques and tools when analyzing the market and the prevailing operating conditions. The selected technique is the subject of research and the analyst’s skill and experience.

Techniques used in strategic planning

  • benchmarking
  • Competitor analysis
    • Competitive intelligence
  • Data mining
  • Ecological model of competition
  • Environmental scanning
  • Forecasting
  • Gap analysis
  • Impact analysis
  • Market analysis
  • Marketing mix modeling
  • PEST analysis (also known as macroenvironmental analysis )
  • Predictive analytics
  • Positioning analysis
  • Portfolio analysis – portfolio analysis refers to a class of analytical methods
    • BCG Analysis
    • GE Multi Factoral analysis (also known as GE / McKinsey matrix )
  • Risk analysis
  • Scenario planning
  • Situation analysis
  • Strategic foresight
  • SWOT analysis
  • Trend analysis
  • Porter’s five forces analysis (also known as Industry Analysis )

Techniques used in positioning analysis

  • Discriminant analysis
  • Factor analysis
  • Multi dimensional scaling
  • Perceptual mapping
  • Preference regression

Branches of Marketing

The book titled, The Marketing Book, 7th ed., Routledge, Oxon, UK, 2016 edited by Michael Baker and Susan Hart identify the distinct branches of marketing practice as:

  • Consumer Marketing (General Marketing )
  • Business marketing ; also known as Industrial Marketing (which also includes Business-to-Government Marketing )
  • Relationship marketing
  • Environmental marketing ; also known as Green marketing )
  • International marketing ; also known as Global Marketing )
  • Marketing services ; which includes not-for-profit marketing and destination marketing )
  • Retailing
  • Social marketing (which includes Cause-related marketing )

For a more detailed breakdown of the topic for each of these key branches of marketing, see Branches of Marketing: Detailed Topics on this page. Marketing, marketing marketing, marketing marketing, political marketing, sports marketing, etc., or marketing to specific target groups (eg marketing to children, marketing to older people , LBGT marketing) see: Special applications of marketing practice ).

Marketing orientations

Marketing orientations are the philosophies or mindsets that guide and shape marketing planning and marketing practice. Some marketing historians believe that different philosophies have been used in marketing marketing. Though there is no real agreement between scholars and scholars, the most commonly cited include:

  • Marketing orientation (See section: Marketing orientation )
    • Marketing concept
  • Production Guidance (also see sections: Production Orientation Gold Production Guidance )
  • Sales orientation ; Also known as the Selling Guidance (also see sections: Selling Orientation or Sales Orientation )
  • Societal Marketing (also see section: Societal Marketing )
    • Sustainable market orientation
    • Corporate social responsibility
  • Relationship orientation (also see Relationship orientation section)
    • Customer relationship management

The marketing management framework

Main article: Marketing management

Marketing planning or the process of developing a marketing program includes the following: Consumer behavior ; Market segmentation and Marketing research . In the process of understanding the consumer market, the marketers may need to consider

Consumer basics

  • Brand awareness
  • consume
  • consumerism
  • Customer knowledge
  • Consumer socialization
  • Consumer switching
  • Centers of influence
  • Funnel consumer purchase
  • Customer engagement
  • Demographics
  • Demographic profile
  • Ethical consumerism
  • Lifestyle

Consumer decision-making

Main article: Buyer decision processes
Further information: Consumer behavior The consumer’s purchase decision process

The main steps in the consumer’s purchase decision process are: Need or problem recognition → Information search → Evaluation of alternatives → Product / Brand Choice → Post purchase behavior

  • AIDA (marketing)
  • Brand awareness
  • Consumer confusion
  • Choice Modeling
  • Decoy effect
  • Impulse purchases
  • Prospect theory
  • Window shopping

Influences on consumer decision-making

Consumers purchase decisions are influenced by a range of internal and external factors:

Internal influences

  • Attitudes ; Beliefs ; Demographics ; Aspirational age ; Aspirational Brand ; Culture ; Learning ; motivation ; Opinion leaders ; Risk perception and loss aversion ; Needs ; Social class ; Values
External influences

  • Culture ; Family ; Reference groups ; Subculture ; Peer group ; Pester power ; Time

Market research and marketing research

Main article: Marketing research
Main article: Market research

Marketing research refers to research activities to understand the environment, including competitors, the socio-cultural environment and the politico-legal operating environment. Market research is specifically related to market research, and is designed to yield actionable customer insights .

Quantitative research methods

Quantitative methods may also be known as Scientific methods .

Main article: Quantitative marketing research
  • Statistical surveys
  • Survey methodology
  • Experimental techniques
  • Exploratory research
  • Online panels
  • Quantitative research
  • Statistical survey
  • Construction questionnaire

Qualitative research methods

Main article: Qualitative marketing research
  • Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software
    • NVivo
  • Observational techniques
    • Eye tracking
    • AttentionTracking
    • electroencephalograph
    • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  • Ethnographic resesearch
  • neuromarketing
  • Focus group

Specific research tools and techniques

  • Awareness research
  • Advertising research
    • Ad tracking
    • Measuring advertising effectiveness
    • Concept testing
    • AttentionTracking
  • Behavioral economics
  • Competitive intelligence
  • Content analysis
  • Coolhunting
  • Spouse analysis
  • Customer satisfaction research
  • Technical Delphi
  • Forecasting
    • Predictive buying
  • Futures research
  • Marketing information systems
  • Marketing intelligence
  • Mixed method research
  • Motivational research – no current article, but opportunity for a new article?
  • Nominal technical group
  • Psychometrics
  • Innovation game
  • Service quality research

Scale / Questionnaire Design

  • Construction questionnaire
  • Scales
    • Likert scale
    • Semantic differential


Main article: Sampling (statistics)
  • Simple random sampling
  • Systematic sampling
  • Statistical surveys
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Multistage sampling
  • Nonprobability sampling

Market segmentation and targeting

List of abbreviations for market segments

Market segmentation

Main article: Market segmentation
  • Market segment (article)
  • Segmenting and positioning (article)
  • Market segmentation (section) or Market segmentation or Market segmentation (section)
  • Mass customization
  • Mass marketing
  • Market segment
  • Microsegmenting
  • microsegment
  • Niche market
  • Hypersegmentation or one-to-one marketing
  • Precision marketing
  • Sub-niche market
Specific approaches to segmenting markets
(a) Segmenting consumer markets

The main bases for segmenting consumer markets include:

  • Demographics
  • Geodemographic segmentation (also known as Geo-targeting or Geodemography )
  • Intermarket segmentation (for segmenting international markets)
  • Psychographics (psychometric segmentation, lifestyle and values ​​segmentation) (article) (also see: Psychographic segmentation- article)
  • Sagacity segmentation
    • List of abbreviations for frequently used consumer segments
(b) Segmenting business or industrial markets

The main bases for segmenting business or industrial markets include:

  • Industrial market segmentation
    • Firmographics
    • Industry classification
Measuring market segment size
  • Bass diffusion model
  • Serviceable available market
  • Total addressable market


  • Targeting (section)
  • Attitudinal targeting
  • Behavioral targeting
  • Demographic profile
  • Demographic targeting
  • Geo-targeting
  • Niche market
  • Targeted advertising
  • Target audience
  • Persona (user experience)
  • Serviceable available market
  • Total addressable market

Proprietary segmentation databases and software

To support, market segmentation analysis marketers may require access to databases with large sample sizes. A number of commercial companies provide this data which typically includes proprietary software designed to query the data and backed by algorithms that support different types of segmentation approaches. These commercial databases are often country or region specific. Popular geo-demographic segmentation databases include:

  • Acorn (UK)
  • Claritas Prizm (US)
  • Experian (Europe, US)
  • Mosaic (Asia-Pacific)

Popular psychometric tools include:

  • Roy Morgan Research (Asia Pacific)
  • VALS (US)
  • Values ​​Modes

Statistical techniques used in segmentation analysis

  • Neural Networks
  • CHID (Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detector)
  • Canonical Analysis
  • Choice Modeling
  • Cluster analysis
  • Spouse analysis
  • Cross tab
  • Discriminant analysis
  • Factor analysis
  • Intent scale translation
  • K-means
  • Latent Class Analysis
  • Logit analysis
  • Multi dimensional scaling
  • Preference-rank translation
  • Preference regression
  • Random Forests
  • Structural Equation Modeling

Marketing management: The marketing program (also known as the marketing mix or the 4 Ps )

The marketing program, also known as the marketing mix, consists of the product, price, place and promotion.

Main article: Marketing mix
Main article: Marketing management


Main article: Product management
Main article: Product (business)
  • Badge engineering
  • Cannibalization (marketing)
  • Euro Car Segment
  • Market cannibalism
  • Market segmentation index
  • Positioning (marketing)
  • Packaging and labeling
    • Food labeling regulations
    • Labeling
    • Country of Origin Labeling
    • Reusable packaging
    • Seasonal packaging
    • Wine label
  • Premium product segment
  • Product lifecycle
  • Product life-cycle theory
  • Product lining
  • Product line extension
  • Product category volume
  • Product churning
  • Product differentiation
  • Product life cycle management (article)
  • Product life-cycle management (marketing) (article)
  • Technology lifecycle
  • Life cycle cost analysis
  • Planned obsolescence
  • Product line
  • Product proliferation
  • Whole product
  • Product portfolio
    • BCG Analysis
    • GE Multi Factoral analysis
  • Contribution margin analysis
  • Product bundling
  • Utility

New product development (NPD)

Main article: New product development

Innovation and New Product Development are an important part of a firm’s long term growth strategy.

The steps in a basic new production development process are:

Idea generation (or Ideation (creative process) ) → Concept screening → Concept testing → Business analysis → Product development → Market testing → Marketing and may include a Soft launch

The NPD process can be applied to:

Products: New product development ; Design
Services: Innovation Service ; Design service
Environmental goods or services: Eco-innovation ; Ecodesign ; Lean product development

A recent trend in NPD is the use of participatory design , also known as co-design or co-operative design, which involves both stakeholders and consumers in the design process.

Sources of new product ideas include: Research and development ; Consumers or Users ; distributors, suppliers or crowdsourcing .

Types of innovation

  • Blue Ocean Strategy
  • Disruptive innovation

NPD represents a high risk activity. It requires substantial investment and a list of product failures suggests that the probability of failure is relatively high.

New product adoption and diffusion

In order to develop a higher understanding of market entry and the fact that the influence of adoption rates, marketers often turn to a number of models or theories of the adoption / diffusion process:

  • Bass diffusion model
  • Dissemination (article)
  • Diffusion of innovations (article)
    • Early adopting
    • Cycle type
  • Technology acceptance model (article)
  • Technology adoption life cycle (article)
  • Technology life cycle
  • Quality function deployment
  • Crossing the Chasm (Book title)

Legal protection of new products and brands

New product development, including product design, manufacturing processes, packaging design etc. implies creative work and therefore incorporates intellectual property . A number of different legal avenues are available to protect different types of intellectual property.

  • Certification mark
  • Copyright
    • List of Copyright Acts
  • Logo
  • Patent
  • Service mark
    • Service mark symbol
  • Trademark
    • Sound trademark
  • Secret trade

Brand management

Main articles: Brand and Brand Management
  • Branding (Promotional)
  • branding
    • Aspirational brand
    • Celebrity branding
    • Co-branding
    • Employer branding
    • Green brands
    • Internet branding
    • Ingredient branding
    • Lifestyle brand
    • Nation branding
    • Symbol-intensive brand
    • White-label product
  • Brand architecture
  • Brand asset management
  • Brand alliances
  • Brand ambassador
  • Brand aversion
  • Brand awareness
  • Brand community
  • Brand equity
  • Brand experience
  • Brand extension (also known as brand stretching)
  • Brand implementation
  • Brand language
  • Brand loyalty
  • Brand naming
  • Brand orientation
  • Brand preference
  • Brand relationship
  • Brand strength analysis
  • Brand tribalism
  • Challenger brand
  • Brand switching
  • Corporate identity
  • Corporate branding
  • Cult brand
  • Generic brand
  • Hallmarks
    • Silver hallmarks
  • List of fictional brands
  • List of renamed brands
  • Product proliferation
  • Mark
  • rebranding
  • Self-brand
  • Visual brand language

Branding strategies

  • Private brand (also known as Private labels or Store brand
  • Private Label Strategy
  • Brand licensing
  • Corporate branding
  • Family branding
  • Fighter brand (also known as a fighting brand )
  • Individual branding
  • National brand
  • Umbrella brand

Brand protection

  • Copyright
  • Service mark
  • Trademark
    • Genericized trademark

Packaging and labeling

Main article: Packaging and labeling
  • Mandatory labeling
  • Sustainable packaging


Main article: Pricing
Main article: Price
  • Algorithmic pricing
  • Barter
  • Choice Modeling
  • Competitor indexing
  • Break even analysis
  • Markup
  • Loyalty card
  • Operating margin
  • Price elasticity of demand
  • Pricing objectives
  • Price points
  • Price ceiling
  • Price controls
  • Price fixing
  • Price fixing cases
  • Price floor
  • Price gouging
  • Price mechanism
  • Price signal
  • Price system
  • Price umbrella
  • Purchasing power
  • Real prices and ideal prices
  • Reservation price
  • Resale price maintenance
  • Shadow price
  • switching costs
  • Target pricing
  • Transfer pricing
  • Pricing science
  • Price override
  • Unit price

Pricing strategies

Main article: Pricing strategies
  • Value-based pricing
  • Relationship-oriented pricing
  • Cost-plus pricing
  • Cost-plus pricing with elasticity considerations
    • Rate of return pricing
    • Pricing for profit maximization

Pricing tactics

Main article: Pricing tactics
  • Base point pricing
  • Cost the limit of price
  • Bait pricing
  • Break-even (economics)
  • Congestion pricing
  • Contingency pricing
  • Clearance dirty
  • Discounts and allowances
  • Drip pricing
  • Dumping (pricing policy)
  • Everyday low price
  • Dirty fire
  • Geographic pricing
  • High-low pricing
  • Loss leader
  • Parity pricing disambiguation needed ]
  • Penetration pricing
  • Premium pricing (also known as Price premium )
  • Price wars
  • Joint product pricing
  • Psychological pricing
  • Premium pricing
  • Price discrimination
    • Dynamic pricing
    • Time-based pricing
      • Geographical pricing and price zoning
  • Value pricing or Value-based purchasing
  • Price skimming
  • Odd price
  • Sliding scale fees
  • Two part tariff
  • Variable pricing and real-time pricing
  • Penetration pricing
  • Variable pricing
  • Willingness to pay
  • Yield management

Place (distribution)

Main article: Distribution (business)
  • Direct marketing
  • Database marketing
  • Direct Marketing Association
  • Drop shipping
  • Jobber (merchandising)
      • Fuel jobber
      • Jobber rack
      • Jobbing house
      • Stockjobber
  • Logistics
    • Green logistics
    • Logistic engineering
    • Reverse logistics
  • Marketing channel
    • Marketing channels
  • Sales (also known as Personal selling )
    • Sales management (also known as sales force management )
    • Sales effectiveness
    • Sales force management system
    • Sales techniques
    • Negotiation
    • Shill
    • Large Group Awareness Training (LGAT)
    • Salesman
  • Supply chain
    • Supply chain management
  • Wholesale
    • Wholesaler
  • Value chain
  • Value migration

The following methods are prohibited in most nations:

  • Multi-level marketing
  • Pyramid scheme

Promotion (also known as marketing communications or integrated marketing communications (IMC))

Main article: Promotion (marketing)
Main article: Integrated marketing communications
Main article: Marketing communications
Main article: Marketing communications planning framework
Main article: Promotional mix
  • Marketing Communications (section)
  • Advertising agency or marketing communications agency
  • Cross-Promotion
  • Communication planning
  • Co-developer
  • Internal marketing
  • Influencer marketing
  • Positioning
  • Referral marketing
  • Street marketing
    • Street team
  • Unique selling proposition
  • Viral marketing
  • Word of mouth marketing

Elements of the promotional mix


Main article: Advertising
  • Ad blocking
  • Advertising management
  • Advertising campaign
  • Account planning
  • Advertising media selection
  • Advertising slogan
  • Attention (advertising)
  • Augmented reality advertising
  • Commercial skipping
  • Consumer-generated advertising
  • Digital marketing
  • Effective frequency
  • History of advertising
  • Immersive advertising
  • infomercial
  • In-game advertising
  • Innovid`s
  • Interactive advertising
  • Native advertising
  • Perceptual blindness
  • Persona
  • Shock advertising
  • storyboard
  • Targeted advertising
  • Target audience
  • Commercial television
  • Reach (advertising)
  • View-through rate

Advertising models: How does advertising work?

  • AIDA (marketing)
  • DAGMAR marketing
  • Elaboration likelihood model (article)
  • Elaboration likelihood model (section)
Advertising research
Main article: Advertising research
  • Advertising research (Article with a media focus)
  • Ad tracking
  • AttentionTracking
  • Copy testing
  • Eye tracking
Advertising Media
  • Audience measurement
  • Advertising board
  • Advertising postcard
  • Cinema
  • Display stand
  • Interactive media
  • Internet
  • magazines
    • List of magazines by circulation
  • Mass media
  • Media planning
  • New media
  • Newspapers
    • Newspaper circulation
    • Lists of newspapers
  • Nielsen Media Research
  • Out-of-home advertising
    • Aerial advertising
    • Billboard (advertising)
      • Digital billboard
      • Human billboard
      • Mobile billboard
      • Neon message board
      • Sandwich board
    • Kiosk
      • Interactive kiosks
    • Transit media
      • Bus advertising
      • Driven media
      • Fleet media
      • Truckside advertisement
      • Wrap advertising
    • signage
      • Electronic signage
      • Digital signage
    • skywriting
  • Product placement
  • Radio
    • List of most-listened-to radio programs
    • Nielsen ratings
    • Nielsen Audio
  • Retail media
  • Social media marketing
  • Streaming media
  • Television
    • List of most watched television broadcasts
    • OzTAM
    • Q Score
    • Television ratings
Award-winning advertising campaigns
  • Share a Coke
  • Coca-Cola’s Hillsong campaign
  • Slip-Slop-Slap (Anti-Cancer Institute of Australia) Winner of the International Sulzberger Award, 2010
Main article: Internet marketing
  • Affiliate marketing
  • Banner blindness
  • Behavioral Targeting
  • Inbound marketing
  • Mobile advertising
  • Online advertising
  • Performance-based advertising
  • Search analytics
  • Search engine optimization
  • Social media marketing
  • Referral marketing
  • Revenue sharing
  • Web analytics
Main types of internet promotion
Email spam , email marketing , post-click marketing , Website monetizing , search engine marketing (SEM), Search Engine Optimization (SEO), Display advertising , * Contextual advertising
Internet advertising methods
Advertising methods: Ad filtering , ad serving , central ad server , pop-up ad , contextual advertising , web banner
Search engine marketing payment methods
pay per click , click fraud , paid inclusion
Internet metrics
Click per rate (CTR) , cost per action (CPA) , cost per click (CPC) , cost per impression (CPI) , cost per mile (CPM) , effective cost per mile (eCPM)


Main article: Advertainment
  • advergaming
  • Branded content (also known as Branded entertainment )
  • In-game advertising
  • Product placement

Direct and digital marketing

Main article: Direct marketing
Main article: digital marketing
  • Direct response television
  • Direct response media
  • Digital marketing (also known as Digital promotion
  • Ecommerce
  • Telemarketing
  • Specialty catalogs

Personal selling

Main article: sales
Main article: personal selling
  • AIDA (marketing)
  • DAGMAR marketing
  • Field marketing
  • Sales management
    • Sales effectiveness
  • Sales process
  • Smarketing
    • Lead generation
    • Presentation
    • Closing (sales)
  • Customer relationship management
  • Customer lifecycle management

Sales promotion

Main article: Sales promotion
  • gimmick
  • Merchandising
  • Branding (Promotional)
  • Promotional campaign
  • Point of sale
  • Point of sale display

Public relations

Main article: Public relations
  • Buzz marketing
    • Buzz monitoring
  • Corporate image
  • Corporate communications
    • Cause marketing
  • Content marketing
  • Doing a Ratner
  • Event marketing
  • Exhibitions
  • speechwriter
  • Trade fairs
  • Undercover marketing
  • Viral marketing
  • Word of mouth and buzz


Main article: Sponsorship
  • Ambush marketing
  • Community marketing

Communications planning

Main article: Marketing communications planning framework
  • Kelman’s source characteristics

Measuring communications effects

  • Audience response
  • Effective frequency
  • Mind share
  • Reach (advertising)
  • Share of voice
  • Share of wallet

The extended marketing mix

The extended marketing mix is ​​used in the marketing of services , ideas and customer experiences and typically refers to a model of 7 Ps and includes the original 4 Ps plus process, physical evidence and people. Some texts use a model of 8 Ps and include performance level as 8th P.


  • Customer experience management
  • Blueprint service

Physical evidence

  • Virtual customer environment
  • Front of house
  • Front office
  • Innovation Service
  • Design service
  • Servicescapes


  • Customer
  • Customer to customer
  • Dramaturgical perspective
  • Staff
  • Pink-collar worker
  • Customer interface
  • CEM integration
  • CEM organization
  • Role theory
  • scripts

Measuring marketing performance: Marketing metrics

Main article: Marketing performance measurement

Marketing activities are costly and represent an investment in a company or brand’s long term future. With the increased emphasis on accountability, marketers must consider how they measure marketing performance and communicate to stakeholders. Various types of metrics can be classified as:

Measures of market / competitive performance

  • Market share
    • Market share analysis
  • Market value
  • Market power
    • Marketing Effectiveness
  • Return on marketing investment (ROMI)
  • Share of wallet

Measures of advertising and promotional effectiveness

  • Measuring advertising effectiveness
  • Share of voice

Measures of brand health

  • Brand equity
  • Brand valuation
  • Return on Marketing Investment (ROMI)

Customer-oriented measures

  • Customer satisfaction
    • Customer satisfaction research
    • Customer data management
  • Customer analytics

Special topics in marketing

  • Consumer Culture Theory (CCT)
  • Customer privacy
  • Consumer behavior and ideals of beauty
  • Diversity marketing
  • Remarketing with Iranian Style
  • Family in advertising
  • Effects of advertising on a teen body image
  • Marketing paradigms
  • Myopia marketing
  • Network marketing
  • Postmodern marketing
  • Sex in advertising
  • Subliminal advertising
  • Subvertising

Branches of Marketing: Detailed topics

Business Marketing

Main article: Industrial marketing
Main article: Business marketing
  • Affiliate marketing
  • Affinity marketing
  • Centers of influence
  • Co-marketing
  • Firmographics
  • Managed services
  • Outsourcing
  • Personal selling
  • Prospecting
  • Solution selling
  • Sales
  • Supply chain management
  • Vendor lock-in

Environmental marketing

Main article: environmental marketing
  • Green marketing

International marketing

Main article: International marketing
  • Intermarket segmentation
  • Global marketing
  • Market entry strategies
  • Product adaptation

Relationship marketing

Main article: Relationship marketing
  • Customer relationship management
  • ECRM – Electronic customer relationship management
  • Customer lifetime value
    • Customer lifetime valuation
  • Customer lifecycle management
  • Loyalty marketing
    • Customer loyalty programs
    • Incentive program
    • Loyalty program
  • Trust-based marketing

Marketing Services

Main article: Marketing Services
  • Customer service
  • Customer Service System
  • Destination marketing
  • Self-service
  • Service quality
  • Customer satisfaction
  • Customer satisfaction research
  • Disconfirmed expectancy
  • Quality management
  • Servicescapes
  • Service
  • Blueprint service
  • Borderless Selling
  • Quality
  • Service quality (aka PZB model or gaps model )
  • Experience economy
  • Design service
  • Service-dominant logic
  • Innovation Service
  • Service mark
  • Servicescapes
  • Service sector
  • Service recovery
  • Service system
  • Service recovery paradox
  • Sports marketing
  • Strategic service management

Social marketing

Main article: Social marketing
  • Corporate social responsibility
  • Cause-related marketing
    • Cause-related loyalty marketing
  • Cradle to serious sustainability practices
  • Green marketing
  • Green brands
  • Socially responsible marketing
  • Societal marketing
  • Sustainability marketing
  • Sustainability brand
  • Sustainable packaging
  • Sustainability metrics and indices


Main article: Retail
  • E-tailing
  • Point of sales
  • Retail concentration
  • Retail design
  • Retail software
  • Retail media
  • Site selection
  • Shopper marketing
  • Store manager
  • Visual merchandising

Types of retailer

  • Arabber
  • Bazaari – used to describe merchants and those who work at markets (Middle East)
  • costermonger
  • Hawker (trade)
  • huckster
  • Merchant
  • Peddler
  • Street vendor

Types of retail and shopping precincts

  • Arcade
  • Automated retail
  • Bazaar
    • Bedesten term used to describe a bazaar in the Balkans
    • Haat bazaar refers to a regular produce market (South Asia)
    • Meena Bazaar a bazaar that raises money for non-profit organizations (South Asian)
    • Landa bazaar at South Asia
    • Saddar Bazaar in South Korea.
  • Big-box store
  • Category killer
  • Chain store
  • Charity shop
  • Convenience store
  • Department store
    • List of department stores
  • Discount store
  • Dollar store
  • Hypermarket
  • Franchising
  • Market town
  • Market
    • Wet market fresh produce market in Asia
    • Pasar malam has a night market in South-East Asia
    • Pasar pagi a morning market in South-East Asia
  • pawnbroker
  • Pop-up retail
  • Retailers’ cooperative
  • Shopping mall
  • Shopping streets
  • Second-hand shop
  • Self-service
  • Supermarket
    • List of supermarkets
  • Strip mall
  • Souq (or souk is an arabic term for bazaar or market)
  • Variety store
  • Vending machine
  • Warehouse club
  • Warehouse store

Special applications of marketing and promotion

  • Advertising and marketing to children
  • Teenagers and food marketing
  • Agricultural marketing
  • Agricultural value chain
  • Alcohol advertising
  • Business-to-government marketing
  • Cause marketing
  • City marketing
  • Cosmetics advertising
  • Community marketing
  • Destination marketing
    • Destination marketing organization
  • Marketing evangelism
  • Marketing commitment
  • Faith-based marketing
  • Fish marketing
  • Fast food advertising
  • Food marketing
  • Gray market
  • Health marketing
  • LGBT marketing
  • Local store or neighborhood marketing
  • Megamarketing
  • Marketing of Halo 3
  • Movement marketing (marketing of cultural movements)
  • Pharmaceutical marketing
  • Political advertising campaign
  • Shrimp marketing
  • Sports marketing
  • Tobacco advertising
  • Tourist attractions
  • Wholesale marketing of food


Main article: History of marketing
  • History of advertising (section)
  • History of advertising (main page)
  • History of advertising in Britain Article
  • History of branding (section)
  • History of brand management (section)
  • History of marketing research (section)
  • History of market segmentation (section)
  • History of promotional merchandise (section)
  • History of retail (section)
  • History of merchants (section)
  • History of the marketplace (section)
  • Origins of the positioning concept (section)
  • Origins of consumer behavior (section)

Influential marketing thinkers

  • Wroe Alderson (1898-1965) – proponent of marketing science and instrumental in developing the functional school of marketing
  • Igor Ansoff (1918-2002) – marketing / management strategist; noted for the product / market growth matrix
  • David Aaker – highly awarded educator and author in the area of ​​marketing and organizational theory
  • NW Ayer & Son – probably the first advertising agency to use mass media (ie telegraph) in a promotional campaign
  • Leonard Berry (professor) – author and educator with strong interest in marketing and marketing relationshp
  • Neil H. Borden (1922-1962) – coined the term, ‘marketing mix’
  • Clayton Christensen – educator, author and consultant, published in the areas of innovation and entrpreneurship
  • George S. Day – author and educator; has published in the area of ​​strategic marketing
  • Ernest Dichter (1907-1991) – pioneer of motivational research
  • Andrew SC Ehrenberg (1926-2010) – made contributions to the methodology of data collection, analysis and presentation
  • Edward Filene (1860-1937) – early pioneer of modern retailing methods
  • Seth Godin – Popular author, entrepreneur, public speaker and marketer
  • Paul E. Green -academic and author; The founder of the multidimensional scaling, clustering, and analysis of qualitative data in marketing.
  • Shelby D. Hunt- editor of the Journal of Marketing and Organizational Theorist
  • John E. Jeuck (1916-2009) – early marketing educator
  • Philip Kotler (1931-) – popularized the managerial approach to marketing; prolific author
  • E. St. Elmo Lewis – developed the AIDA model used in sales and advertising
  • Christopher Lovelock (1940-2008) – author of many books and articles on marketing services
  • Theodore Levitt (1925-2006) – Editor of Harvard Business Review , Marketing Author and Marketing Author, Marketing Myopia
  • E. Jerome McCarthy – popularized the managerial approach and developed the concept of the 4Ps
  • Arthur Nielsen – early market researcher; pioneered methods for radio and TV ratings
  • David Ogilvy (businessman) – advertising guru, early pioneer of market positioning
  • Vance Packard – journalist and author, wrote The Hidden Persuaders (1957) which explored the use of motivational research in marketing practice
  • Charles Coolidge Parlin (1872-1942) – pioneer of market and advertising research methods
  • Rosser Reeves – advertising guru; advocate of frequency
  • Al Ries – advertising executive, author and credited with coining the term, ‘positioning’ in the late 1960s
  • Arch Wilkinson Shaw (1876-1962) – early management theorist, proponent of the scientific approach to marketing
  • Henry Charles Taylor (1873-1969) – The Agricultural Marketer
  • Richard S. Tedlow – author and educatator; published in the area of ​​marketing history
  • J Walter Thompson – one of the earliest modern advertising agencies
  • Jack Trout – together with Al Ries, popularized positioning concept
  • Don E. Schultz – father of ‘integrated marketing’
  • Stephen Vargo – together with RF Lusch
  • Henry Grady Weaver (1889-1949) – developed the survey questionnaire for use in market research
  • Jerry (Yoram) Wind – former editor of the Journal of Marketing , educator and marketer
  • Byron Sharp – NZ academic; one of the first to document buyer loyalty in empirical work
  • Daniel Starch – developed the so-called Starch scores to measure the impact of magazine advertising; Starch scores are still in use
  • Gerald Zaltman – developed the Metaphor Technical Elicitation (ZMET)
  • Valarie Zeithaml – together with A. Parasurman and LL Berry, the SERVQUAL instrument

Trade magazines and academic journals

  • Advertising Age
  • Adweek
  • Brandweek
  • International Journal of Bank Marketing
  • Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management
  • Inside Retailing (Australia)
  • International Journal of Research in Marketing
  • Journal of Creative Communications
  • Journal of Consumer Research
  • Journal of Marketing Research
  • Journal of Marketing
  • Journal of Marketing Education
  • Journal of Service Research
  • Journal of Vacation Marketing
  • Marketing (magazine)
  • Marketing (United Kingdom)
  • Marketing Science (newspaper)
  • Marketing Theory
  • Marketing Week
  • The Marketer UK (defunct)
  • MediaWeek
  • PRWeek United Kingdom
  • Sales Promotion (magazine)
  • Social Marketing Quarterly
  • Sponsor Magazine

Marketing & advertising associations, society and industry associations

  • American Marketing Association
  • Arts Marketing Association
  • Association of National Advertisers
  • Australian Market and Social Research Society Limited
  • Canadian Marketing Association
  • Construction Marketing Association
  • Direct marketing association
  • Direct Marketing Association (UK)
  • Direct Marketing Association (USA)
  • Direct Marketing Association (South Africa)
  • Direct Selling Association
  • European Marketing Research Center
  • European Sponsorship Association
  • Marketing Research Association
  • Market Research Society
  • Potato Marketing Corporation of WA
  • Produce Marketing Association
  • Promotion Marketing Association

Archives, museums and galleries

  • American Advertising Museum
  • Museum of Brands, Packaging & Advertising , Notting Hill, London
  • Museum of Advertising
  • The Advertising Archives
  • William F. Eisner Museum of Advertising & Design , Milwauke, Wisconsin

Lists and outlines

  • Outline of business management
  • Outline of economics
  • Outline of finance
  • Outline of production
  • List of abbreviations for market segments
  • List of department stores
  • List of influential advertising theorists
  • List of influential salesmen and sales theorists
  • List of accounting topics
  • List of international trade topics
  • List of business law topics
  • List of business theorists
  • List of economists
  • List of most-listened-to radio programs
  • List of most watched television broadcasts
  • List of magazines by circulation
  • Lists of newspapers
  • List of product failures
  • List of supermarkets

Marketing education

  • History of marketing thought and education
  • Escola Superior of Propaganda e Marketing , Brazil (School of Advertising & Marketing)
  • Master of Business Administration
  • Master of Marketing Research
  • Bachelor of Business
  • Bachelor of Business Administration
  • Bachelor of Pharmaceutical Marketing and Management Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science