Marketing Communications

Marketing communications ( MC , marcom , marcomm ) uses different marketing channels and tools in combination: [1] Marketing communication channels focuses on business communications to a desired market, or the market in general. A marketing communication tool can be anything from: advertising , personal selling , direct marketing , sponsorship, communication, promotion and public relations. [1]

They are made up of the marketing mix which is made up of the 4P’s: Price, Promotion, Place and Product, for a business selling goods, and made up of the 7P’s: Price, Promotion, Place, Product, People, Physical Evidence Process, for a service based business. [2]


Marketing communications falls into various categories of marketing to the public, from advertising, promotions, sales, branding and online promotion. It is so spread and iconic that it has become a favored It is a symbolic tool that helps organizations interact with their stakeholders in the market, by promoting their goods or services to them. Whenever members of the public interact with an organization, marketing communication has been used. This is a significant process where businesses use to gain success and knowledge on their brand. In order to gain success in marketing both the organization and the members of the public must be involved. Businesses can not operate if they target each market to satisfy their consumer’s satisfactions. By targeting audiences who appreciate the organizations marketing program will gain a successful branding. A target audience is a group of people at the marketers, delivering them a message of their brand. The target audience will be more likely to be in a positive way.

Marketing communications can fall into the same meaning as advertising. Advertising is the most common term of understanding and evaluation of the public, and it is important to know that it is important to understand the situation. Advertising is only a small section of marketing communications and is not an alternative term to it. Promotion and marketing communications is difficult to understand, it is easier to understand. The concept of marketing communications, which is a range of tools to deliver a message to their target audiences, thus impacting the businesses performance negatively or positively. It is also commonly called the promotional mix, Crosier (1990) states that all terms have the same meaning in the context of the 4ps. Marketing communications is very similar to marketing in general. When asking what marketing is, the marketing mix comes to mind and the most common way of describing it is by explaining the 4p’s. Product, price, place and promotion. Price of a product or service can send a message to their target audience. For example, comparing a $ 10 bag to a $ 50 bag, the more expensive bag will be more expensive than the cheaper one. This is market information that can easily be sent to all audiences. The most fundamental part of explains what is the 4p’s is that,

Marketing communications and the marketing mix falls into the category of the marketing plan. The marketing plan is a specific document that outlines current marketing situations. This plan identifies key opportunities and threats, set objectives and develops an action plan to achieve marketing goals. Each section of the 4P’s sets its own object, for instance, pricing objective might be to increase sales in a certain market by pricing their own product or service to their competitors. This creates a significant change in the market because it is more likely to have a negative impact on your market, because it is more likely to negatively affect the market. Marketing communications presents a marketing strategy to draw the attention of all target audiences. Sending a message about 4p organizations can excite their interests and can help create a successful business.

Marketing communications consists of 5 key factors, persuasion and information, objectives, contact points, stakeholders and marketing communication activities. Firstly, all marketing communication is aimed at persuading their audience to change their attitudes and behavior towards the organization. There are many ways to persuade the target audience. For instance, marketers can provide a valid reasoning and significant facts that can change consumer behavior significantly. Listening and responding to any questions to the organization can go a long way in the driving success of the organization. From making the target audience feel their emotions and opinion of the organization. Marketing communication can work without an objective. Showing information, educating the market and an advanced positive image for the organization can also persuade the target audience. Contact points must require managing and coordinating a marketing message. Contact points can range from where they are able to be a realitysocial mediaand others. Successful marketing requires that a message at every contact point can persuade any target audience. Stakeholders are anyone in the market who can influence the purchase of the product or create a success story. Competitors can be important stakeholders for an organization; by two competitors working together can help protect their market shares. Finally, marketing communication activities can be sent to a message informally by orally marking communication programs or informally through the marketing mix. There are two key types of messages marketing communications deliver, unplanned and planned messages. Planned messages are delivered through, advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, personal selling, point of purchase, packaging, specialties, sponsorships, licensing and customer service. Unplanned messages, however, are all about the company. Both types of messages are crucial as they bring a unified story to the market.

Marketing communication

Communication is one important aspect of the marketing mix. [3] Indeed, marketing communication is often the largest component of communication within a company, which may be to present company value, objectives or specific products and services to investors, customers or the general public. In the 21st century, the objective is to continue to focus towards more personalized messages, targeting customer groups or individuals to create high responses and greater brand interaction. [3]

As business becomes more global with greater access to Internet, mobile phones and social media, new challenges exist with communication professionals to inform people in particular foreign markets to facilitate business activity. Shippers in the global economy and access to new markets. To be effective, communication strategies must converge with marketing objectives while also accounting for local languages, dialects and cultural norms.

Communications are including both external communication and internal communication. [3] External communication can be market research questionnaires, office website, guarantees, annual report and presentation for investors. Internal communication can be the marketing materials, price lists, product catalogs, sales presentations and management communications. Different types of communications. For example, industrial market demands a non-personal communication. [3]

There are also 4 different fundamental types of communication.

One-to-many: this kind of communication is the most original communication. It is “generated from a single broadcast point and then available in airwaves or in mass print runs [3] “. This type of communication is usually adapted to a particular subject. Such as in an urgent notice play on the airwave of an industry, it is helpful for the general announcement.

Many-to-one: many-to-one is usually connected to the one-to-many communication. [3] For example, a reply button in your email box, a prepaid number purchased from Spark. All the communication techniques proceeded to the public with bi-directional communication from mass communications. [3]

One-to-one: this is the most intensive and interactive communication at a one-to-one level. [3] There are so many examples like a sales presentation; a negotiation in the market is based on one-to-one communication. Most of this communication is face to face. But in the development of Internet, email and online shopping are taking place. Which is provided the chance to sell and buyers talk more directly. Another important is instant message ‘chat’ channel like Wechat and Facebook, which are extremely popular in business. [3]

Many-to-many: On the background of highly developed Internet, the many-to-many communication sites, ‘blogging’ websites. [3] The many-to-many communication stands for the participants are able to exchange their ideas and experiences.

After all, each type of communication applies to different situations and is time-based. [3] The communications have the features of immediacy and longevity. Such as one-to-one is more of a focus on the subject.

Psychology of communication

One of the primary goals of a marketing communication is to persuade consumers, by changing their perception of a product or service, or persuading them to purchase (or feel motivated / tempted to purchase) a product or service. The “Elaboration Likelihood Model” is used to demonstrate how persuasion occurs. When a marketing communication message is sent out, it must be accepted and attended by the receiver. By giving their attention to marketing communication, consumers will begin the process and understand the message. There are two roads to persuasion: Central road and peripheral route. Central route processing is used in high-purchase purchase decisions. These are geared-to-the-teeth are expensive. purchasing a house or car). Because these purchases are high risk, a large cognitive effort is expended in order to rationally select the most logical and valuable option available. In these marketing messages, information about the product or service itself is most valuable. Peripheral route processing is employed in a low commitment purchase decisions. These are frequent, low-risk purchases, which are more affective (or emotion based) than cognitive (or rational) values. Because of this, marketing messages will employ more storytelling and imagery, focusing on how the product or service makes one feel, and the associations it has, rather than the attributes and specifications it possesses. A large cognitive effort is expended in order to rationally select the most logical and valuable option available. In these marketing messages, information about the product or service itself is most valuable. Peripheral route processing is employed in a low commitment purchase decisions. These are frequent, low-risk purchases, which are more affective (or emotion based) than cognitive (or rational) values. Because of this, marketing messages will employ more storytelling and imagery, focusing on how the product or service makes one feel, and the associations it has, rather than the attributes and specifications it possesses. A large cognitive effort is expended in order to rationally select the most logical and valuable option available. In these marketing messages, information about the product or service itself is most valuable. Peripheral route processing is employed in a low commitment purchase decisions. These are frequent, low-risk purchases, which are more affective (or emotion based) than cognitive (or rational) values. Because of this, marketing messages will employ more storytelling and imagery, focusing on how the product or service makes one feel, and the associations it has, rather than the attributes and specifications it possesses. information about the product or service itself is most valuable. Peripheral route processing is employed in a low commitment purchase decisions. These are frequent, low-risk purchases, which are more affective (or emotion based) than cognitive (or rational) values. Because of this, marketing messages will employ more storytelling and imagery, focusing on how the product or service makes one feel, and the associations it has, rather than the attributes and specifications it possesses. information about the product or service itself is most valuable. Peripheral route processing is employed in a low commitment purchase decisions. These are frequent, low-risk purchases, which are more affective (or emotion based) than cognitive (or rational) values. Because of this, marketing messages will employ more storytelling and imagery, focusing on how the product or service makes one feel, and the associations it has, rather than the attributes and specifications it possesses.

Opinion Leaders : [4] Opinion leaders are consumers who have broad influence over the purchasing behavior of other consumers. These can take the form of peers or celebrities, and often represent a “desired state” in the eye of the influencing consumer. By following the consumption patterns of opinion leaders, consumers aspire to achieve a similar status or lifestyle, and project a similar image. Because of this, opinion leaders are powerful factors in marketing communications. Having opinion leaders can increase brand awareness and sales. Due to this, large companies pay highly influential celebrities to endorse their products.

Opinion Formers : [5] Opinion formers are consumers who are regarded by their peers as being highly knowledgeable and trustworthy. They are considered to be experts in the field of extensive knowledge, and as such are able to influence the behavior of other people while lacking the celebrity status of an opinion leader.

Communication Barriers: Communication barriers are factors that hinder the effectiveness of a marketing communication. Major communication barriers are: Noise and clutter, consumer apathy, brand equity and weak creative ideas or strategies. Noise is an unrelated sensory stimulus that a consumer of the marketing message. Clutter is the high number and concentration of advertised products at any time. As attention can not be divided, there is a limit to how much can be taken in and processed, which means that a strong marketing communication needs to be taken into account. (Ang, 2014. “Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications.” Page 11. Consumer apathy is the tendency of a consumer to avoid marketing communications. This can be for a number of reasons. The consumer may not be interested, or consider themselves “in the market,” and as such attempts to irrelevant marketing stimuli. This is known as selective attention. Alternatively, a consumer may be “in the market,” yet not aware of the existence or existence or prevalence. Consumers tend to purchase familiar brands, and will not be inspired to investigate alternatives. One approach marketers use to overcome apathy is to create incentives, such as competitive pricing or loyalty rewards. (Ang, 2014. “Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications.” Page 11.) Brand equity means a brand is not significantly different from its competition. Without a distinct value proposition, consumers do not develop brand preference or associations, and instead purchase pure price (Ang, 2014. “Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications”. This is not ideal, as is effective marketing communication increases brand equity. One important objective of marketing communications is to develop a unique brand identity that allows the brand to be separate from its competition.

Marketing mix

Main article: Marketing mix

Marketing mix is ​​the most important part of marketing strategy, which is “the framework to manage marketing and business within a context [6] “. Refer to the marketing strategy; it is to identify how the business achieves their objective marketing and the service they want to deliver to their customers. And the initial step to achieve the marketing strategy is to identify the market and the business plan. [6] Also, the business has to make sure every step of the way is successful. One false step could cause a bad influence to the whole business. After all, this is a reason why the business needs marketing mix.

Communication process

Communication can be defined as a process of using, word, sound or visual cues to supply information to one or more people. [7] A communication process is defined as information that the collector understands the message that the business intended to send. [8] The communication process was once thought to be the source of the message, which is then encoded , put through the chosen communication channel , which is then decoded by the recipient and then received. [9] Throughout the middle of the channel there is the potential for noise to distort the message being sent. [9]Where do they come from? [9]

With the prevalent use of technology, customers are looking for information about brands, products and businesses. [10] This means that there is a need for an additional channel within the communication process, so it is a more accurate representation of the current business environment. Businesses are now leading the way in the world of opinion and opinion by those who have a great influence over today’s society and their perceptions. They have to be included in the communication process before receiving it. [11]

Source: The source is an individual or organization that has information to share. The source (or sender). The source may be an individual (eg a sales person or spokesperson) or a non-personal identity (eg a corporation or organization). The communication process begins with the source, marketers must carefully choose a source as it affects the audience. [12]

Encoding: This is the transposing of the words, words or pictures to show a message. Encoding is the development of the message that contains the information the source hopes to convey. It is putting together the thoughts, ideas and information into a symbolic form that can be transmitted and understood by the receiver. [12]

Encoding the message is the second step in the communication process. The encoding process leads to the development of a message that contains the information or the mean hopes to convey. Encoding is extremely important, it is a brain activity that makes the receiver makes sense of a word or idea used to convey meaning: words, color, pictures, signs, symbols or even music. The message may be verbal or nonverbal, oral or written, or symbolic (eg the sound of a brass band being redolent of simpler times or heritage). or it can often include ‘cues’ such as the Nike ‘swoosh’ which indicates success. Often things can get in the way of the “correct” encoding and the interpretation of the intended message (decoding). There are methods the sender can use to make sure the receiver interprets the message correctly, these methods include; channels, consumer insights, having similarities with the receiver and frame of reference (eg age, values, culture).[9] Finally, it is extremely important to get to know it and to get it done. These concepts help craft the message in the minds of the consumer.

Message : The message comes from the encoding process, it is the content. The message can be in many forms such as verbal, non-verbal, oral, written or symbolic. [12]

Channel : The channel is the method by which the communication travels from the source to the receiver. [9] There are two types of channels, personal and non-personal. Personal channels of communication are direct and target individual groups. Personal communication channels are connected to each other by the person-to-person by telephone, email or fax. Social channels also fall under the category of personal communications. Friends, neighbors, associates, co-workers, are all means of social channels. [13]Carrying a message without interpersonal contact between sender and receiver is known as non-personal channels of communication. Mass media or mass communications are examples of non-personal channels, since the message is sent to many individuals at one time. Non-personal channels of communication are made of two main types, the first being print. Print media includes newspapers, magazines, direct mail, and billboards. The second type is broadcast; broadcast media includes radio and television. [14]

This model is more effective when there is a common ground between the senders and the receivers so they can communicate effectively. Choosing the appropriate source of assistance and the audience. The source will be more effective if they are relatable to the target audience. This realm of understanding is represented by the overlapping circles. The more knowledge of the source is about who they are targeting, the better they can understand the receiver. [12]

Decoding: The receiver unravels the symbols to interpret what is being communicated. Transforming the sender’s message back into thought. This is very much about the receiver’s frame of reference (or realm of understanding) which involves their values, attitudes and state of mind when receiving the message. For the model to be effective the decoding by the receiver would match the encoding by the source, meaning they would understand the message that was sent. [12]

The third stage of the marketing communication process occurs when the message is delivered. Generally, receivers are the consumers in the target market or who read, hear, and / or see the marketer’s message and decode it. Decoding is the process of interpreting messages and linking the correct encoding and the ability of the receiver to deconstruct Decoding occurs when the message reaches one or more of the receiver’s senses. Consumers and others (see) and advertising (eg coupon). According to Belch & Belch, this process is deeply influenced by the receiver’s frame of reference or field of experience, which refers to the experiences, perceptions, attitudes, and values.[9]For effective communication to occur, the message decoding process of the receiver must match the encoding of the sender. What does this mean for the receiver understand and correctly translate what the source is trying to communicate. Effective communication is more likely to emerge when there is some common ground between the two parties. The more familiarity with the sender, the better the sender can understand their needs, commiserate with them, and more effectively.

Receiver : The individual (s) The receiver hears, sees or reads the message and decodes it.

Noise: Noise is any external interference during this communication process. Any external factors that creates unplanned distortion. This distortion can make it difficult for the receiver to interpret or assign meaning to a message as intended by the source. Examples of noise in the encoding of the message could be lacking of radio or television signal. Noise can also occur when the sender and receivers fields of experience do not overlap, if there is no common ground between them, which may result in a misunderstanding in the meaning of the message. [12]

Throughout the communication process, the message is subject to irrelevant factors that can distort or interfere with its reception. Noise is the physical or psychological fundamentals or from the inside or outside of the process of communication. Noise acts as a barrier as it makes the message less accurate, less productive and unclear. It can even prevent the message from reaching the receiver. It is often triggered by badly made images or messages (eg poor print quality) or elements of distraction (eg, consumer scrolling through TV advertisements). Psychological noise could be mixed meanings, poor credibility of the source or the insignificance of the message to the consumer requirements. Not having a connection with the receiver and lacking in common ground usually causes this. This may be the result of unsuitable encoding of the message such as; using a sign, symbol, or word that is unfamiliar or has a different meaning to the receiver. The more common ground is between the sender and the receiver, the less likely it is for noise and barriers to interrupt a message.[9]

Response / Feedback : The receiver’s response to the message provides feedback to the sender. This is the set of reactions after seeing, hearing or reading the message. The receiver ‘s response to the message is decoded and received. A form of feedback in an interpersonal selling situation could be questions, comments or any reactions (such as expressions) about the message. In mass media an indication of how communication has been perceived. There are many different ways in the world of this kind of change. Feedback can help to improve the communication process and the success of future messages. [12]

The receiver’s particular type of reactions after seeing, hearing, or reading a message is known as a response. Receivers’ responses can range from not noticeable actions or noticeable actions. Not noticeable responses can be storing their information in the form of information on the market. One of the main goals of communication is receiving appropriate responses, the feedback loop is in the process of being heard and the message is being decoded and received. To achieve this goal, or assist the receiver in giving response. [13]Receiving feedback may be more difficult for parties than advertised through the channels of mass media, because they have not been contacted. While the critical form of feedback occurs through sales, it is often hard to show a direct relationship between advertising and purchase behavior. So marketers; visit stores, check coupon redemption, use reply cards and listen to customers. A significant amount of feedback may have been required for the purpose of determining success or failure in the communication process.

Opinion leaders and opinion formers

Opinion leaders are people who are celebrities, or a peer who has the influence to influence someone else’s opinion / perception (“Opinion Leaders”, nd). You can receive the opinion leaders’ thoughts or feeling towards the product / service through paid advertising, social media, blogs, or any other form of written media. These can be direct, indirect gold influences. Opinion formers are people who have specialized knowledge about the area which corresponds to the product, service or business (“Opinion Formers”, nd). This can be a doctor sponsoring a form of medication, or a personal trainer recommending a sports brand to the customer. This means that both opinion leaders and opinion formers have a broad influence on the consumer and their view of the business, product,[15] If a brand is specializing in the manufacture and manufacture of products, the business would like to know who they are, and who they are. is as wide spread as their target market as possible. [15] Opinion leaders add another link in the communication process, acting as a “filtering filter” for the receivers of the message (Dahlen, 2010). The message is sent by the audience and the opinion leaders share their opinions with the targeted audience.

Adjusted model of communications

The core model of communication has been criticized for its linearity – sender, message, receiver and its absence of structural perception. [16] Since then an updated model of communication has developed.

The latter has been influenced by the fact that it has affected more people than family and friends than the mass media (Dahlen, 2010).

The company is also known to be one of the leading players. Opinion leaders are perceived to be of a higher social status, a socialite, and of high influence in their peer groups. Opinion leaders do not have the same authority as opinion formers. Opinion formers also known as change agents have formal influence over groups of people. They provide an expert opinion or recommendation in their profession. Both opinion leaders and opinion formers have influence over the opinions of others.

Integrated marketing communications (IMC)

Main article: Integrated marketing communications

Integrated marketing communications (IMC) is a communication process that involves the planning, creation, integration, and implementation of various forms of marketing communications. IMC unites and co-ordinates the organizations marketing communications to promote a brand message. [17] Coordinating the brands communications makes the brand seem more trustworthy and sound as it is seen as a ‘whole’ rather than a mixture of different messages being sent out. [18] The IMC perspective looks at the ‘big picture’ in marketing, advertising and promotions. [12]

Traditional media

Traditional media include broadcast channels (television, radio and cinema), print (newspaper, magazine, books, directories) and public advertising such as billboards, posters and public transport. TV, radio and print The largest media to advertise, accounting for approximately 70% of all media expenditure. These are known as traditional media for the longest time. The effectiveness of traditional media is its ability to reach large numbers of people. For this reason, it is also referred to as “mass media”.


Main article: television advertising

Television has been inseparably dominated by the medium of the medium of the medium of the media This makes it a strong choice for a marketer to increase brand awareness. Mostly in the world of television, which makes it an ideal choice for reaching consumers, but there are some disadvantages: Television commercials being “zipped” and “zapped”: “Zipping” is the term given to fast forwarding commercial break sessions during the pre-recording of programs. is the term given to the habit of many consumers to change channels during commercial breaks. This is also done to avoid watching advertisements. Using television advertisements is beneficial to its wide reach and the degree to which it can be segmented according to the target market. Advertisements are carefully paired with time segments and / or linked with appropriate programming, known as “media vehicles”. This helps to ensure the audience is being reached with the marketing message (Ang, 2014. “Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications.” Page 118.). Advertisements are carefully paired with time segments and / or linked with appropriate programming, known as “media vehicles”. This helps to ensure the audience is being reached with the marketing message (Ang, 2014. “Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications.” Page 118.). Advertisements are carefully paired with time segments and / or linked with appropriate programming, known as “media vehicles”. This helps to ensure the audience is being reached with the marketing message (Ang, 2014. “Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications.” Page 118.).


Main article: radio advertising

Despite being the oldest form of media transmission still being used, marketing via radio remains a popular and effective choice due to its relatively low cost and convenience. transit, at work, and during recreational activities such as shopping). Due to the lack of a visual appearance, radio advertising attempts to create imagery in the consumers mind. Radio advertising is also extremely effective at reinforcing messages encountered in other channels (such as television). (Ang, 2014. “Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications.” Page 122.) A familiar with the brand and ad awareness. This is an example of ”


Printed media is the most basic form of media advertising. It is the most challenging to create strong, sensory stimulation, but can be effective in effective, clear information communication and message delivery. Where a consumer may be a message in the audio message (perhaps a loud noise interrupts, or someone blocks their view) in print the message remains visible indefinitely. Aspects such as size, color and style can be used to increase the size of the market, which is important in the medium-media communication channel (Ang, 2014. “Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications “, Page 126.).

Traditionally, marketing communications is focused on the creation and execution of marketing collateral. Traditional media, or old media, has been used within the marketing and advertising world for many years. [19] Traditional media encompasses forms of advertising media, such as television, magazines, newspapers, radio, and direct mail and outdoor. For many decades, these forms of communication have been the main source for marketers and consumers. In a world with the Internet and the vast world of social media, the roots of advertising and the promotion of traditional media, where there is a direct, physical way of advertising.

In traditional advertising and promotion in terms of media, it usually conveys a physical message or action to channel the sender’s message. In the form of billboards, magazines, newspapers and posters, to get their message across to the target audience. The effectiveness of print relates to the marketing mix of 4 P’s. Print advertisement advertisement in the form of a physical form, the whereabouts of where it will reach the target audience. Businesses will usually place a billboard in areas where you will be able to see and hear the audience will spend their daily activities. Newspapers, magazines and posters are smaller in size and can be found in many places. Depending on the product may be advertised, marketers may need more information about this product. Television and radio uses physical actions to advertise, which reaches the consumers senses of hearing or orally. These forms of traditional media channels are visually and / or vocally communicating to the consumer. Traditional media is effective, utilizing new media to reach its target audiences. which reaches the consumer’s senses of hearing or orally. These forms of traditional media channels are visually and / or vocally communicating to the consumer. Traditional media is effective, utilizing new media to reach its target audiences. which reaches the consumer’s senses of hearing or orally. These forms of traditional media channels are visually and / or vocally communicating to the consumer. Traditional media is effective, utilizing new media to reach its target audiences.[19]

Technology advancements have been created and marketed to reach consumers, not just affecting the media. Traditional media is definitely losing effectiveness. [20]Traditional media is becoming a more powerful means of communicating with consumers and it is driven by two key factors, audience fragmentation and ability to choose commercial content. Television, radio, magazines, and newspapers are becoming more fragmented and reaching smaller and more selective audiences. The rapid growth of communication in the field of interactive media, especially the Internet has caused the changes in the use of communication media, with businesses using traditional media. Consumers no longer accept the faith. Consumers can not avoid new and innovative ways of communication. [19]The largest companies are realizing that to be able to survive in the 21st century, they must adapt to new ways of advertising. If they do not adapt, competitors in their respective industries will make it more difficult for their business to survive. Many marketers believe that traditional methods of advertising have become too expensive and are not cost-effective compared to modern media. Companies are looking for lower-cost, more targeted means of direct mail, sales, promotions, marketing and sponsorships and the most common in modern times, the internet. The Internet is an interactive medium that is becoming an essential part of the communication strategies. One of the most popular forms of marketing in the field of business communication. Interactive media such as internet, CD-ROMs, kiosks and interactive television allow consumers to alter information and images given to them, make inquiries, respond to questions and make purchases. The transition of marketing communications by applying traditional media to modern media has greatly influenced the success of the communication process. Interactive media allows marketers to interact with the audience easier and more efficiently. It is a rapid procedure to communicate through interactive media to promote goods and services. Marketers can now channel their message to the target audience in a short span of time and a cost-efficient way. Advertising campaigns have the feature of adaptability with ease and innovations.[19]

Communication platforms

Communication platforms like Skype, Facebook or other types of media have become extremely important means of communication. Although there are other methods of communication that are not just related to social media , they can also be influenced by their peers, this process is known to social mediation. Marketing Communication Platforms are a powerful capability for personalizing and expending marketing contents in an automated fashion based on the profile of the recipients. [14]

A platform by simplest definition is a raised floor or stage. It provides a similar principle in marketing communications, providing awareness and information about a specific brand or product. [21] Strategic selection of various communication platforms is known as a media strategy which aims to engage an audience in a meaningful conversation and, as a result, create a lasting relationship. [22] Modern technology has expanded the use of platforms and consumers and the brand can interact. As a result, the context of platforms and how they are defined has changed. [23] There are various platforms by which communication is transmitted, [24]and these can be categorized as paid, owned, earned and shared by Grönroos and Lindberg-Repo. [25] The model acknowledges that communication must be credible and trustworthy to be effective. Studies revealing a number of consumers and having a look at them. [23] Therefore, effective communication on an integrated approach to one dimensional and interactive platforms. [26]

Explicitly planned market is communicated through non-personal communication platforms. [27] The brand is in control of the platform, message content, frequency and repetition of the communication message. [28] This is typically accomplished through traditional printed platforms, such as print, electronic, outdoor and alternative media, which aims to target a specific segment of the target market. [27]

Print media includes newspapers and magazines, these publications are a highly customizable and vary in print size, font, positioning and color combination. Newspapers commonly used coarse paper and tend to have poor reproduction quality, while magazines can enhance the appearance of a certain product. [24] Magazines function as a frame, a psychological device which manipulates perspective and judgment. [29] For example, Vogue, a leading paid circulation circulation magazine, [30]publishes advertising efforts alongside beautiful imagery and elegant photography, the association of the two communicates respectability and sophistication and promotes the creditability of the brands which appear in the same publication. Due to the high-quality reproduction, magazines tend to be longer and more often than not. Consumers often cut out individual images which further prolongs the message and increases potential exposure. While the message may be lost during this time, the brand awareness may still be raised. [24]

Magazines are often segmented by the subject of a consumer product, and they are likely to be marketed to a specific target audience, and therefore, offer low impact in selectivity. Newspapers are often run on a weekly schedule and offer information and coverage of local events and businesses. Such advertisements in smaller typeface and are black and white. [24]

Electronic media, likewise has paid platform includes radio and television. [24] Radio by definition is the broadcasting of sound programs to the public and today can be streamed through a broadband connection or digitally transmitted to people’s cars or homes. [31] Fill et al. [24] Radio communication acknowledges promotes “emotional consumer-centric associations” as each listener is forced to construct a visual representation of the words and sounds in their minds. A common technique used by other companies in the world of advertising. [32]Research suggests this sub-consciousness relational thought process greatly benefits future brand recognition and awareness. [24]

Television and radio channel options have been significantly increased in the last decade. In addition, there are some commercials to be played, for example, during rush hour. Both Television and Commercial Radio are often efficient to produce. While initial production costs of a television advertisement are high, it is likely to reach a mass audience and, therefore, maintains a low cost per viewer, making it an efficient communication platform. [24] Likewise, radio infomercials are often a simple script that is read out by the presenter. This is quick and does not require extensive lead times due to minimal production efforts. [31]The biggest fall of electronic media is its function as background noise. For example, many listen to the radio while cooking and cleaning while others switch between television channels to avoid advertising, this may limit the effectiveness of reach and frequency and therefore, message recall. [24]

Other aspects of noise reduction, the effectiveness of message penetration, for example, are the most important aspects of communication. [21] To eliminate noise brands often choose to include such as samples and scent strips within magazines while newspapers uses “call to action” inserts such as coupons which encourages consumers to visit or try a local service or good. [24]

Due to the rise in advertising clutter, there has been a push for non-traditional media such as guerrilla marketing . [33] Guerrilla Marketing is usually a low-cost way of generating buzz through creative or unexpected communication platforms. [34] It is often possible to gain the attention of a broad audience, or to create a customizable example. Research rates guerrilla advertising as having a higher perceived value compared to other communication platforms, which tends to result in a positive consumer response. [33]An example of successful guerrilla marketing was created by Volkswagen (VW) in their “driven by fun” campaign, where consumers could use VW’s “fast lane” slide instead of the escalator to get to the bottom of the stairs faster. [35]

Every point of contact is a form of communication and it is, therefore, necessary to consider touch points as a communication platform. Touch points are owned and marketed by the consumer and influenced by the decision-making process during pre-purchase, purchase and post-purchase. [36]

There are many ways in which a customer can interact with a business. [21] Interactions occur through direct customer service exchanges, a company website, the point of purchase environment and product packaging or performance. [36] These all contribute to consumer perceptions of a particular brand. For instance, the service-scape of a purchase can not be affected by such a problem. [21] Fast fashion retailers such as Topshop maintain a white store interior and exterior which is perceived as luxurious. [37]Ferrero Rocher Likewise, the higher price point and packaging can communicate sophistication and better quality. These products may have a significant effect on purchase decision, [36] such companies as Coke a Cola and Pepsi provide a free of charge fridge to distributors at the point of purchase. [21]

In contrast, United Airlines is an example of how poor use of post-purchase customer service can have an adverse effect on company reputation. [22] While boarding a United Airlines flight, Dave Carroll saw his “Taylor” guitar. [38]Carroll uploaded a humorous YouTube video titled “United breaks guitars”, [22] which has experienced significant viewership and currently holds over 15 million views. [39] Reportedly, United faced a significant drop in the stock market. [22]

Carroll’s YouTube video is an example of the multiplier effect, and how to understand the attributes of users. [22] Research shows customer are more likely to pass on negative experiences, and therefore, such interactive platforms of communication have a significant impact on purchase decisions and brand outlook. [28]

This links to the new trend in consumer behavior and the integration of marketing communications, where we have been developing socially mediated communication. The dynamics of communication platforms has been broken down where companies interact with consumers in a co-creative process. [28] As Andy Lark, Commonwealth Bank CMO states “the power has shifted, we are now entering a transparent age where there are no secrets”. [40]

Traditional single step Communication Was business to consumer orientated, Where users Took a passive role in the process with little feedback.Further studies-have shown Consumers are More Likely to find interpersonal communication from influential people like family and friends more than credible mass media [23] Such influential people are known as opinion leaders and trainers, who maintains a high social status within a group of experts. [21]These further developments highlight the importance of opinion leaders in the two-step linear model of communication purposed by Roger, [23]where opinion leaders function as intermediaries by interpreting and filtering information to their followers. These traditional models view the media platforms as the primary source of information, however, which has changed in the course of communication. [23] This multi-dimensional non-linear flow of communication allows UGC. UGC includes all the ways in which people publish online, blogs, forums, online platforms for social networks, Facebook, YouTube and Instagram, [28]this is known as earned and shared media. [22]

Nike is an example of how it is earned and shared media has created co-creation in the consumer relationship. Nike ID is an online app that allows customers to design their shoes and just “Just do it online”. [21] Therefore, interactive media is highly critical to integrated marketing communication and it encourages positive word of mouth communications. [28]

Studies show that market-generated media is still an important communication platform and information source.[28] Consumers tend to consider both market-generated and UGC when making a purchase decision,[23] particularly, for higher involvement product like vinyl albums.[41] However, the movement from traditional media to various forms of online and UGC marketing is a rising trend, and academics recognize that marketing communication is an open system and customer attributes are influenced by multiple aspects of business surroundings through various communication platforms[21]Ultimately positive brand encounters manifest brand supporters who contribute to positive earned and shared media, through online and offline product recommendations. [23]

Social mediation

According to Laszerfeld, Berelson and Gaudet, people are more likely to be affected by influential homophilous groups than those who are heterophilous crowds.

This process is known as social mediation, the idea of ​​opinion leaders and opinion formers. Opinion leaders and opinion formers are influential in shaping the opinions of others. [26] Opinion leaders are able to influence a message to an audience but they are not seen as an expert in their field. They can pick up their information from the media or may they comment on their blog, [42] they are still appreciating by their own social networks. [26] Opinion formers are people who are knowledgeable in their field. This may be derived from their professional position, formal influence, job status or qualification over groups. [42] Opinion leaders add another link in the communication channel process and act as a filter for the targeted audience.

The internet

The Internet features both non-personal and other forms of communication. It has become one of the most dominant sources of information for most consumers. Belch & Belch (2012) explain that the Internet is mostly a non-personal form of communication as it is used by consumers and organizations that are providing information on their websites. However, the internet continually develops, it is now progressively evolving into a form of personal communication as well as to interact with other social media users. [9]

Social media

Social commercials market share is rising, thanks to services like YouTube, Facebook and Instagram. With the explosion of social media use around the world, social media websites have become important to businesses with customers, prospects, employees, and applicants. To be able to engage with existing and future customers, to reinforce brand messaging, to influence customer opinions, to provide targeted offers, and to serve customers more efficiently. [43]


Email marketing is a marketing Directly commercial message to a group of people using email. In its broadest sense, every email sent to a customer or potential customer could be considered email marketing. It is usually done with the help of business partners, request business, or solicit sales or donations, and is meant to build loyalty, trust, or brand awareness. Email marketing can be done or sold at a current customer database. Broadly, the term is usually used to refer to the messages of the customer, and to the customer, and to the customer, to encourage customer loyalty and repeat business, and adding advertisements to email messages sent by other companies to their customers.

In-product communication

Another channel for direct digital marketing is in-product communication (or in-product marketing), which delivers marketing content directly to a user’s internet-connected device or software application . In-product marketing is often very similar to that of email marketing campaigns, but the segmentation and delivery is more targeted. Because email HAS Become a standard tool in the digital marketing toolkit, the email channel is Often overloaded and overused, leading to much lower open rates , lower rates commitment, lower click-through rates (CTR) , and lower conversion rates . The rise of internet-connected (IOT ) devices is enabling a growing number of manufacturers of digital communications.


The first era of branding came to life in 1541 when Cortez imported from the United States. Branding is an extremely important communication platform in the marketing communication process. The company may not be in a position to provide information to its customers. Branding goes beyond having a logo, its how to communicate on behalf of the company, verbally and visually. A brand is a conversation, It is how you talk about your company when you are not in the room. [43]Consumers are constantly interacting and meeting with brands. This sponsorship, personal selling and product packaging. Brand exposure such as this is known as a brand touch point or brand contact the organization may try impressing its consumer. Without branding, consumers would not be able to decipher between products and decide which one they like most. People may not be able to even tell the differences between some of the brands, they would have been better than others. In order to help with purchase decisions, marketing communications try to create a distinct image for the brand. Brand associations are made to promote linkages with places, personalities or even emotions which creates a sophisticated brand personality in the minds of the consumers. This shows how to brand communications add value to products[26] and why branding is a crucial aspect to the communication platform.

Direct marketing

Direct marketing is defined as the process in which individual customers’ responses and transactions are recorded. [44] Direct marketing has increased over the past decade and is an important aspect of Marketing Communications. Direct marketing is one of the most important aspects of the relationship between the customer and the brand. [45]A large part of this area is Customer Relationship Marketing. organizations use the accounts of the customers to give their services. It is the process of managing detailed information about the customer’s touch points with the objective to maximize satisfaction and loyalty. This type of communication can be transmitted in person, by phone, email, email or website. [46]An important part of direct marketing is that it is the interaction between the organization and the customer and is mostly a two-way communication. Direct marketing relies heavily on databases, which contains valuable information on the customers. organizations should understand that they could provide a competitive advantage. Mistakes that organizations are dealing with databases rather than an investment rather than an improvement. [46]

Direct mail

This form of direct marketing is usually a letter, catalog, or sample. These items are sent through post, e-mail, fax, and courier. This communication indicates that the recipient has shown interest in the organization. Advantages of direct mail are personalization, careful targeting, creativity and flexibility. Email is low-cost, but can be lost through spam and junk email filters. Direct mail is heavily dependent on databases that should be kept up to date. [46]


Telemarketing is the type of marketing communication. There are 2 types of telemarketing: Outbound and Inbound. [46]Outbound telemarketing is used by organizations to reach out to potential customers, generate sales, make-up appointments with salespeople and introduce new products. Inbound telemarketing is where people call the organization to complain or inquire about products. Both outbound and inbound can be used as a customer service strategy to boost sales and receive suggestions for improvement. Advantages of telemarketing are that it is targeted at communications, it is a flexible and direct interaction between the organization and the customer. A disadvantage is that call centers are usually used to handle outbound and inbound telemarketing, which needs to be implemented, managed and financed. [46]

Mail order

Mail order as a form of direct marketing is a catalog of products that customers can order to receive in the mail. This form of direct marketing dates back over 100 years. Home shopping, online shopping and teleshopping now will accompany it. With current technology mail order has improved. Now there can be a larger range in the future, and is more likely to be dealt with professionally. Advantages of mail order are, however, that they are necessary to maintain the position of the customer. [46]

Direct-response advertising

Direct-response advertising is a message transmitted through traditional media communications that requires the reader, viewer, listener or customer to respond directly to the organization. [46] The audience may respond to receive information or to purchase a product. A common example of direct response advertising is in “home shopping” television. Viewers are told to purchase the product right away to receive a particular deal or discount. Disadvantages are that focus can be lost because of the medium of communication and the comparison can be compared to direct mail. organization’s messages can get cluttered and crowded. By using radio and magazine advertising organizations are able to narrow their audience. [46]


With the introduction of new technology, new media opportunities have opened up for organizations to have greater impact with their marketing communications. E-communications are the types of new electronic media. Media included are: the Internet, the World Wide Web (www.), Cellular technology and SMS, touch-screen kiosks, CD and DVD technology and smart cards. [46]

The Internet

The Internet allows many multimedia documents to be shared among its users. In 2003 approximately 30 million websites were registered worldwide and 650 million were connected to the Internet. [47] The Internet as a marketing tool can be used to reach customers directly, inform customers, create brand loyalty, build relationships, and be used as a marketing communications platform. Online advertising can be used to build brand attitudes, it includes techniques such as: graphic images as website banners, pop-up advertisements, homepage restyling and anchor deals (co-operation between two organizations). [46]

Cellular marketing

Cellular marketing uses mobile phone and SMS to promote a product or brand. Advantages are that they are high levels of flexibility and they can be easily integrated into computer systems using the Internet to send mass text messages. Using databases this platform of marketing communications allows organizations to directly target customers. Uses for sending mass messages to customers could be reminding them to renew magazine subscriptions, giving exclusive product discounts, or building brand reputation through competitions or sweepstakes. When using customer’s personal information permission must be granted. [46]

CD / DVD technology

CD and DVD can be used as part of e-communications. Entire marketing presentations, catalogs, brochures and price lists can be stored on a CD. CDs are small and easy to listen to, but most of them can be found on a website or email. [46]


Marketing communications are focused on the product / service as opposed to corporate communications where the focus of communications is the company / enterprise itself. Marketing communications are primarily concerned with demand generation and product / service positioning [48] while corporate communications deal with issue management, mergers and acquisitions, litigation, etc.

See also

  • Advertising management
  • Brand awareness
  • Consumer behavior
  • Co-marketing
  • Integrated marketing communications
  • Marketing activation
  • Real-time marketing
  • Media intelligence


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