Guerrilla marketing

Guerrilla marketing is an advertisement strategy concept designed for businesses to promote their products or services in an unconventional way with little budget to spend. This involves high energy and imagination focusing on the attention of the public. Some large companies use unconventional advertisement techniques, proclaiming to be guerrilla marketing but those companies will be larger and the brand is already visible. [1] The main point of guerrilla marketing is that the activities are done on such or such public places, such as shopping centers, parks or beaches with maximum audience access to a larger audience. [2]

Guerrilla marketing is a concept that has arisen as we move from traditional media to electronic media and more. It was a concept that was created by Jay Conrad Levinson when he wrote the book Guerrilla Marketing in 1984. Traditional advertising media are as such, print, radio, television and direct mail (Belch & Belch, 2012) but we are moving away from these channels the marketers and advertisers have to find new strategies to get their commercial messages to the consumer. Guerrilla marketing is an alternative strategy to make a big impression on the brand (What is Guerrilla Marketing, 2015), this in turn creates buzzabout the brand or product being marketed. It is a way of advertising that increases engagement with the product or service, and is designed to create a memorable experience for the consumer. By creating this memorable experience for the consumer, it also increases the likelihood of a consumer, or someone who is interested in having a better relationship with the market. It’s more of a mass audience.

This style of marketing is extremely effective for small businesses. For example, they need to have imagination, energy and time (Bourn, 2009). Guerrilla marketing is also an effective way companies who can not provide a tangible service can advertise their products through the traditional channels as long as they have an effective strategy.

As opposed to traditional media Guerrilla marketing can not be measured by statistics. It is designed to cut through the clutter of traditional advertising. The message to consumers will be clear and concise, the business will be maintained. This type of marketing is one of the unconscious minds. To keep the product in mind, it is needed, so it is possible to repeat it and it is shared among friends it allows repetition. (Bourn, 2009)

Two types of marketing encompassed by marketing are viral marketing and buzz marketing .

Unlike typical public marketing campaigns that utilize billboards, warfare marketing involves the application of multiple techniques and practices in order to establish direct contact with the customers. [3] One of the goals of this interaction is to cause an emotional response in the clients and the final goal of marketing is to get people back to a different way than they are used to. The technique involves a flyer in public spaces, but it is often used for the purpose. The challenge with any guerrilla marketing campaign is to find the correct place and time to do so.

Selon Marcel Saucet, 2013, the different kinds of guerrilla marketing are ambient , ambush , stealth , viral and street marketing. [4]


Ambient marketing

Ambient communication is a complex form of corporate communication that uses the elements of the environment. [5] It is a compilation of intelligence, flexibility, and effective use of the atmosphere.

Ambient marketing, which can be referred to as marketing presence can be defined as:

“The placement of advertising in unusual and unexpected places (often) with unconventional methods (execution) and being first or only ad execution to do so (temporal)” [6]

Ambient marketing can be found anywhere in the world, and it can be used in many cases. [7] and can often interact with consumers.

Ambush marketing

Ambush marketing is a form of associative marketing, used by an organization to capitalize upon the awareness, attention, goodwill, and other benefits, generated by having an association with an event or property or property. [8]

It is usually seen at major events where rivals of official sponsors use and sometimes covert tactics to build an association with the event and increase awareness for their brands. For example, Nike during the London Olympics, London, London, London, London, London, London, Olympic Games, London, London, London, London Olympics and Nike. [9]

Stealth marketing

Stealth marketing is a deliberate act of entering, operating in, or exiting a market in a stealthy, secretive or imperceptible manner, or an attempt to do so. [10] People get involved with the project. This needs to be implemented with uttermost covertness because of the participants becoming aware of the campaign, it will have a negative effect on the

Viral / buzz marketing

Viral marketing describes any strategy that can be used to promote the growth of people in the marketplace. Such viruses, such strategies, are needed to increase the number of millions of people. Off the Internet, viral marketing has been referred to as “word-of-mouth”, “creating a buzz”, “leveraging the media”, “network marketing”, But on the Internet, for better or worse, it’s called “viral marketing. ” [11]

Similarly, buzz marketing uses high-profile media to encourage the public to discuss the brand or product. [7] Buzz marketing works best when consumer’s responses to a product or service are more effective, without the company paying them. Buzz generated from buzz marketing campaigns is referred to as “amplified WOM” (word-of-mouth), and “organic WOM” is when buzz occurs naturally by the consumer. [7]

In 1976, Thought Technology Ltd., a biofeedback and psychophysiological instrument manufacturer. was one of the earliest organizations to use this practice and define it by name. Ten years prior to the terms’ official use, Thought Technology implemented buzz marketing at the International Exhibition of Inventions and New Techniques in Geneva . [12] Though AFFORD Unable to traditional marketing, the small company Was featured in a news item across from the Canadarm after-winning a silver medal for Their GSR biofeedback instrumentation. This high-profile association created buzz surrounding the product, as the endorsement was genuine. The resulting organic WOM led to a personal congratulations from the 15th Prime Minister of Canada ,Pierre Trudeau . In 1984, this article was published in a 3-page article in Prevention (magazine) which garnered enough sales for the company to pay off all debts. [13] This organization is an early example of how to use press and media in buzz marketing . [14]

Guerrilla projection advertising

Guerrilla projection advertising is effectively a digital billboard that is projected on the face of the building of a building without permission of the governing bodies (ie council permits), or the permission of the owner of the building. [15] The displays are projected on buildings in high traffic locations (ie people on foot and in vehicles). Guerrilla projection advertising is an effective addition to campaigns of a considerable size, for example a product launch, the release of a new film, retail promotions etc. [15]As with many guerrilla marketing techniques, guerrilla projection advertising may incur fine gold penalties for advertising without the consent of the building owner. This comes at a risk to the company and / or brand. The advantages and disadvantages of this form of guerrilla marketing must be carefully considered before proceeding to avoid unwanted expenses. [15]

Grassroots marketing

Grassroots campaigns . A successful grassroots campaign is not about the dissemination of the message of hope that consumers are paying attention, but rather highlights a personal connection between the consumer and the brand and builds a lasting relationship with the brand. [16]

Wild posting

Wild postings (also referred to as a flyposting or bill posting) is a fundamentals to be used in the marketplace. , lampposts, university campuses, coffee bulletin boards or skate parks etc. [17] Wild posters, posters, posters, guerrilla cling posters, posters, stickers, magnets, stickers and vinyl labels. [17]There may be legal issues, however, where it is possible to advertise on private property without prior consent. [17]


Of all the guerrilla marketing strategies, Astroturfing is among the most controversial and has a high risk factor for the marketing of the product or service. [18] Astroturfing derives from artificial “turf”, often used in stadiums or tennis courts – also known as fake grass. Hence, fake endorsements, testimonials and recommendations of Astroturfing in the public relations sector. [18]Astroturfing involves generating an anecdotal information or a product or a company through a review or a positive view. This can be a negative and detrimental effect on a company, should the consumer suspect that the review is not authentic, damaging the company’s reputation or even worse, resulting in litigation. [18]

Street marketing

Street marketing uses unconventional means of advertising or promoting products and brands. As a division of guerrilla marketing, street marketing is specific to all marketing activities such as parks, streets, events and so on. Street trolleys , public toilets, public transport, manhole covers, footpaths, rubbish bins and so on. [19]

Street marketing is not confined to fixed advertisements. It is common practice for organizations to use brand ambassadors who can distribute product samples and discount vouchers. The brand ambassadors may be accompanied by a bicycle which contains the product samples, or they may be wearing a walking billboard. The physical interaction with consumers has a greater influence than traditional passive advertising. [20]

According to Marcel Saucet and Bernard Cova, [21] street marketing can be used as a general term encompassing six main types of activities:

Distribution of flyers or products

This activity is more traditional and the most common form of street marketing employed by brands.

Product animations

This form of operation consists of personalizing a high-traffic space using brand imagery. The idea is to create a micro-universe in order to promote a new product or service.

Human animations

The goal of such actions is to create a space in which the brand is communicated through human activity.

Road shows

This form of mobile presentation is based on the development of means of transport: Taxi, bike, Segway, etc.

Uncovered actions

These activities involve the customization of street elements.

Event actions

These activities take the form of shows, such as flash mobs or contests. The idea is to promote a product, service or brand value through organization of a public event.

Presence marketing

This is a guerrilla marketing type that goes along the same lines as ambient marketing. Products are to maintain a constant presence through product placements, street ads, stalls at local festivals and markets.

Etymology and origin

The term “guerrilla marketing” is traced to guerrilla warfare , which employs atypical tactics to achieve an objective. In 1984, the term was launched by Leo Burnett’s creative director Jay Conrad Levinson in his book Guerrilla Marketing . [22] [23] [24]The term itself was inspired by warfare, which was unconventional warfare using different tactics. It involves high imagination and energy to execute a guerrilla marketing campaign. This kind of marketing is a product of the past, creating a greater impression and ultimately leading to buzz through word-of-mouth or social media platforms. Guerrilla marketing is perfect for any small or medium size businesses to bring their product or services to their customers. This has been used by many companies to show the difference from its competitors and to make use of social media campaigns. Lately, individuals use unconventional methods of job hunting or to work more.[25] As a result, the concept of street marketing was born. It has evolved from the application of activities on the streets, to the development of innovative practices of promotion. [26] For example, one method used by many companies to promote their products or services on the streets is the distribution of fliers. This activity does not focus on creativity, but on making publicity on the streets. However, with the passage of time, companies have developed more unconventional techniques to catch the attention of the customers. [21]

Street marketing

Main article: Street marketing

Street marketing is a subset of guerrilla marketing. Like guerrilla marketing, street marketing has the characteristic of being unconventional. [27] However, it is limited to the streets or public places. Other forms of Internet marketing and other forms of communication, such as the Internet, to establish communication with the customers.

Guerrilla marketing is indeed understood to be more of a mobilization of the space of the streets than street art and street art. [28] The Y generation, 15-to 30-year-old, is often the most likely target for the campaigns of its associations with the culture of the street. [29]The success on any of the marketing campaigns lies on the relationship between advertiser and the agency. Both parties will have the same goal. The desire for instant bonuses for the marketplace is one of the best ways to market your business with guerilla tactics. Simple examples consist of using ‘loading’ pages to access the content of the message. As users with disabilities on the web, it is essential, and easy, to capture their attention this way. Other website methods include interesting web features such as

Street marketing is one of the most popular advertising games in the world. This was born when companies wanted to take over. This was especially the case with small and medium businesses. [30] Levinson, in 1984 Saucet in 2013. The different types of street marketing, according to the model of Cova and Saucet are: Street / Ambient ; Ambush / Parasitic; Stealth / undercover; Viral / Buzz. [31]The difficulty with street marketing is to plan, organize and execute the operation. The agencies or advertisers will always be able to identify a unique and creative idea, which may be more important than any other issue in the market. If the campaign is intent or vague, the viewers will fail to notice the effect and the message.

Typical procedure

First, enterprises identify the public places, cultural events, close to schools, sporting events and recreation areas for children. [32] Next, companies have to develop a plan to get close to different media and the target market. [5] In order to attract attention, street marketing events not only does not involve unusual activities, but uses technology as part of the events. The goal is to increase the value of the campaigns and get potential consumers’ attention. [33]

Besides, the plans that companies develop or take into account that guerrilla or street marketing involves global communication and interaction not only with the customers or the media. [2] They are also developed to identify opportunities and collect information about products, markets and competitors. For example, for business it is important that customers stay with them, instead of choosing the competitors’ offers. They make use of other strategies, and they consider it to be a part of the market, when they use street marketing. [34] [ full quote needed ]

There are various examples of strategies that are used in guerilla marketing. One of them is to provide to increase sales. In many cases, businesses do not only supply their products or services to be recognized, but they also offer other things for free. Another instance is to present a fundraiser offer. The point of this strategy is to help other organizations, such as schools, by offering them money. Most companies implement their method of profitability, but to improve their reputation and image among the community. Finally, there is a strategy called “team selling” which consists of conforming groups of people, the majority of them young, who go knocking the doors of different houses in a neighborhood. They do this in order to help companies and sell their products or services.quote needed ]

When doing guerilla marketing or street marketing, organizations also consider focusing on the psychological approach. If they are having success or not. Street marketing focuses on some psychological aspects to know customers’ behavior and preferences. For example, 45% of people are left-brained, 45% are right brained, and 10% are balanced. Left-brained persons tend to be logical, right-brained ones tend to be emotional, and the rest combines the two. Then, according to the product or service of the business, they also decide to market their campaigns. Besides, all their businesses base their street marketing campaigns on their customers. Repetition is related to the unconscious part of the mind. This is the one in charge of making decisions. It lets people know what they are going to choose, they are going to buy. Businesses follow the principle that establishes, the more people paying attention to the campaign.

When it was decided to do it, it could be anything out of viral, ambient, ambush, street or stealth, the focus for them is to meet the objectives. The main objectives for them are:

  • To create enough buzz to serve in word-of-mouth, helping the brand to establish well with its products.
  • To the most important of the senses of the customer / consumer enhancing personal experience with the brand and building good reputation.
  • To reach the target by daily routine.

Through the experience and the ephemeral feelings shared by the company and the target, advertisers and agencies have a feeling of intimacy that resonates beyond the encounter. This feeling of nearness is becoming more important as it relates to the social media. [35]


The guerrilla marketing promotion was first identified by Jay Conrad Levinson in his book Guerrilla Marketing (1984) .The book describes hundreds of “guerrilla marketing weapons” in use at the time. Guerrilla marketers need to be creative in devising unconventional methods of promotion to maintain the public interest in a product or service. Levinson writes that when implementing guerilla marketing tactics, smaller organizations and entrepreneurs are actually at an advantage. Ultimately, however, guerrilla marketers must “deliver the goods.” In The Guerrilla Marketing Handbook, the authors write: “… in order to sell a product or a service, a company must establish a relationship with the customer. … ” [36]

Online guerilla marketing

The web is rife with examples of guerrilla marketing, to the extent that many of us do not notice its presence. The desire for instant bonuses for the marketplace is one of the best ways to market your business with guerilla tactics. Simple examples consist of using ‘loading’ pages to access the content of the message. As users with disabilities on the web, it is essential, and easy, to capture their attention this way. Other website methods include interesting web features such as

Many online marketing strategies also use social media such as Facebook and LinkedIn to get started. Other companies run competitions or discounts based on encouraging users to share their product. Viral videos are an incredibly popular form of warfare, and they are likely to share their experience and service. Some companies such as Google to create interactive elements like them. These dynamic guerrilla marketing tactics can become globally important businesses.

Associated marketing trends

Guerrilla marketing for McDonald’s

The term, guerrilla marketing, is now often used as a descriptor for the use of non-traditional media, such as or street art , graffiti (or ” reverse graffiti “), flyer-posting, ambush marketing , and forehead advertising . It may also be a component of promotions involving associated strategies, such as:

  • Grassroots marketing and astroturfing -disguising company messaging as an authentic grassroots movement ;
  • Street or “tissue pack” marketing-hand-to-hand marketing;
  • Wait marketing -presented when and where consumers are waiting (such as medical offices, urinals, or gas pumps).
  • Internet marketing-having presence on sites, subliminally encouraging its users (thus creating “buzz” through a combination of viral and undercover marketing);
  • Viral marketing-through social networks.
  • Publicity stunts- A publicity stunt is defined as a pre-planned event that is designed to attract the public’s eye and attention, to create a hype about that topic, event or service.

Undercover marketing

Undercover marketing (also known as “stealth marketing”, or, by its detractors, “roach baiting”) is where consumers do not realize they are being marketed to. Buzz campaigns can reach consumers, and unlike conventional media, consumers tend to trust it more often, as it is usually coming from a friend or acquaintance. Overall, the person doing the marketing should look and sound like a peer of their target audience, without any signs of an ulterior motive for endorsing the item.


There are various organizations that have implemented the guerrilla and street marketing strategies. The majority of them are small companies, but they are also big companies that have been involved in the guerrilla and street marketing environment. [37] Most of the examples of the strategies that both small and large enterprises As stated before, one guerrilla marketing method that is used by many businesses to provide fliers. The goal is to create awareness of the company. One example of this took place in Montpelier, Vermont , where the New England Culinary Institute(NECI) sent a group of students to a movie theater to hand out 400 fliers. These fliers had coupons in which NECI was invited to their monthly Theme Dinners. Another company, Boston’s Kung-Fu Tai Chi Club, has the option of disseminating fliers instead of placing advertisements on the newspapers. The purpose of the fliers was to promote the company’s self-defense classes for women.

Other businesses apply the technique of sending disguised people to promote things on the streets. For example, organized a street marketing activity in the “Feria del Libro” (“Book Fair”) in Madrid. It is a prince who was walking around the crowd looking for his “real love”. He had a glass slipper and even got to try the shoe on some people. A woman behind him has been giving bookmarks to the people who have been told that “Times have changed; the way to find love, too “or” experience yours on “. Also, in Madrid and Barcelona, ​​Nokia developed a campaign called “Avestruz” (“Ostrich”) to promote the 5500 and 5700 mobiles. In the campaign, a group of real-size ostrich puppets tried to interact with young people in high quality MP3 playback. The puppets were holding their own phones and listening to the music. When a young person appeared, the puppet tried to catch his / her attention to show him / her the quality of the mobile. The reason why they are so big, so people could easily look at them.[37]

There are enterprises that disseminate or separate events. For example, Sony invests on joining promoters and tells them that they have infiltrated into public meetings. What do they have to do with the company? Another instance is the Spanish company Clickair (an extension of Iberia Airlines), which has developed into a group of people. The group was supplying approximately 3,000 tickets to promote different Clickair destinations. The people who first feel a text message with the required information. In the end, the company received a total of 3,390 messages. Along with these examples, There are other street marketing techniques that are even more unusual. Lee Jeans, a French company dedicated to the selling of jeans, promoted the opening of their new store in rue des Rosiers in Paris. The method they applied to distribute denims, on the different streets of the neighborhood. Furthermore, in Italy, the members of the Nintendo put into action a campaign in which they used post-it’s to promote the Wii console. They do not have many post-it with the shapes of some characters from different video games. Those images were placed as if they were billboards on the streets. “Wii not forget”, the name of the campaign, and a brief explanation of it, were the words written on the post-its. In some cases, some street marketing may incite the ire of local authorities;[38] For the cost of a small city-issued fine, the company received front page advertising on the Houston Chronicle.

Sony Ericsson used an undercover campaign in 2002 when they hired 60 actors in ten major cities and had them accost strangers and ask them: “Would you mind taking my picture?” The actor then played the role of a newcomer. “And thus an act of civility was converted into a branding event. [39]

Guerrilla marketing is not just exclusive to small companies. For big companies it is a high risk, a high reward strategy. When successful it can capture even more market share, but if it fails it can damage the company’s brand image. One successful guerrilla marketing campaign is the Coca-Cola ‘Happiness Machine’. In January 2010, Coca-Cola, with the help of Definition 6, filmed a reaction of a Coke vending machine dispensing ‘doses’ of happiness to unsuspecting students in St. John’s University. A seemingly normal machine vending machine surprised by dispensing items that were more than they bargained for. Coke, pizza, flowers, to even a twelve-foot hero sub. “Coke’s goal to inspire consumers through small, surprise moments of happiness” said Paul Iannacchino Jr., Creative Director, Definition 6. With a budget of only $ 60,000, the video generated 500,000 views in the first week. It now has over 7 million views to date. The campaign was so popular that it was 30-second edit of the American Idol’s season finale. The Coca-Cola “Happiness Machine” also went on to receive the CLIO’s prestigious Gold Interactive Award at the 51st annual awards held in New York City. After the campaign’s success, Coca-Cola has decided to continue with the ‘Happiness’ theme and has released similar videos since then. The Coca-Cola “Happiness Machine” also went on to receive the CLIO’s prestigious Gold Interactive Award at the 51st annual awards held in New York City. After the campaign’s success, Coca-Cola has decided to continue with the ‘Happiness’ theme and has released similar videos since then. The Coca-Cola “Happiness Machine” also went on to receive the CLIO’s prestigious Gold Interactive Award at the 51st annual awards held in New York City. After the campaign’s success, Coca-Cola has decided to continue with the ‘Happiness’ theme and has released similar videos since then.[40]

Strategic risk

Because of the nature of guerrilla marketing, the message and objective must be clearly defined in order to avoid being misunderstood. Misinterpretation by the targeted audience of the message intended to be promoted is a risk. Word-of-mouth advertising does not always stay focused enough on the intended message. The rumor-like spread of word-of-mouth marketing is uncontrollable once released, and can result in misrepresentation of the message or confusion about a brand.

Another risk involves wrongly timed (or incorrectly placed) events, which may actually be perceived to be against the interests of the consumer. For instance, in an ill-conceived promotion that took place on January 31, 2007 , several magnetic circuit boards-each with a flashing LED cartoon figure-were attached to metal surfaces in and around Boston, Massachusetts to promote the animated series, Aqua Teen Hunger Force . The circuit boards were mistakenly taken for explosive devices . Several subway stations; bridges; and a portion of Interstate 93 were closed, destroyed, and destroyed. [41]

Some guerrilla marketing may prompt the ire of local authorities. Then risks are assessed and may still be considered worthwhile. Such Was the case in Houston , Texas , When BMW Auto ‘s ad agency, Street Factory Media, attached a replica of a Mini -Cooper (made of Styrofoam ) to the side of a downtown building in January 2013. [42] For the small cost of a city-issued fine, the company received front page advertising in the Houston Chronicle .

Another problem presents itself if marketers fail to properly execute an undercover campaign. They run a considerable risk of backlash. An example of this can be found in Sony Entertainment’s on-line debacle with Zipatoni. The company is trying to promote Zipatoni through a stealth marketing campaign, which was quickly detected by the internet community, resulting in Sony’s immediate experiencing of a backlash of video game enthusiasts. [43]

Street art is thus a subversive activity, hijacking public places and inventing rather paradoxical forms of expression that reformulate ways of communicating, [44] all of which inform street marketing practices. Thus marketing in the street, given that it is inspired by the work of such artists, it is not prepared. [45] The main problem is that, by definition, street mobilization campaigns require the use of public space, and it must be authorized by government authorities to be legal. This is just as true for simple operations as distributing flyers as it is for mobilizing products or people and, of course, for a disguised campaign. [46]

The authorizations necessary to carry out such a campaign are often very difficult to obtain from the time allotted for bringing fruition. Numerous potential operations, and certain areas of the economy, are often prohibited. In such cases, many agencies and advertisers will simply go ahead with the operation, meaning that they choose to act without authorization. [37] How is this achieved? How is it justified? What impact does this choice have on the performance and costs of the operation? What transformations does this choice bring to the agency-advertiser relationship? These are the main questions posed in the development of street marketing operations today.[37]

Inexpensive costs

In a declining economy, guerrilla marketing is an increasing solution to giving companies the comparative edge over others. Businesses are downsizing and cutting costs, companies look to market as a marketing strategy. Instead of investing money in the marketing process, invest money guerrillas, time and creativity. [47] If done successfully, companies will be able to reach their goals for profits and growth with a smaller marketing budget. One such example is the Blair Witch Project. A group of movie students filmed an amateur horror movie. By setting up an internet campaign devoted to spreading rumors about the fictitious ‘Blair Witch’, it created a lot of interest for the film. With a budget of $ 50,000, the movie grossed $ 250 million worldwide.

According to Jay Levinson, guerrilla marketing emphasizes strongly on customer follow-up rather than ignoring customers after their purchase. Focusing on customer follow-up is a cheaper strategy because of the cost of selling a new customer is six times higher than selling to an existing customer. During a tough economy, it is important to focus on building relationships rather than sales. This promotes repeat sales, referrals and increased size of purchase. The use of a telephone is a follow-up tool. Another inexpensive tool for relationships. Emails can be used to direct people to the company website. The site can be used to provide information and to advance sales. [48]

Honesty is an important attribute when marketing to customers during tough times. When companies show they are fully aware of the economic situation and why they are priced their products accordingly, this earns the customer’s respect. The insurance company is also responsible for providing insurance to its customers. One example is the Las Vegas tourism board. During the 2008 recession, Las Vegas was one of the cities that were hit the hardest. They have been fully aware of the recession yet, in a dramatic way, showing that they are coming here and having a blast. This piqued a lot of interest in Las Vegas during the recession. [49]

See also

  • Customer experience management
  • Earned media


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  19. Jump up^ Berman M. (c2007). Street-Smart Advertising: How to Win the Battle of the Buzz. Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
  20. Jump up^ “Street Marketing | What is Street Marketing?” . . Retrieved 2017-03-01 .
  21. ^ Jump up to:b Bernard Cova & Marcel Saucet, “The Secret Lives of Unconventional Campaigns: Street Marketing on the Fringe”, Journal of Marketing Communications, 2014
  22. Jump up^ Josh Sanburn. “The 25 Most Influential Business Management Books”. Time, Inc . Retrieved April 12, 2016 .
  23. Jump up^ Linda S. Wallace (March 12, 1989). ” ‘ Guerrilla marketing’ gives the firms the edge” . Lawrence Journal-World . Retrieved June 5, 2017 .
  24. Jump up^ Greco, Susan. “30 Seconds with Guerrilla Marketing’s Guru” . . New York City : Inc. Retrieved 26 June 2015 .
  25. Jump up^ Marcel Bernard Cova and Marcel Saucet, “The Secret Lives of Unconventional Campaigns: Street Marketing on the Fringe,” Journal of Marketing Communications, 2014
  26. Jump up^ Jay Conrad Levinson, 1984
  27. Jump up^ Pikke Allen. ” ” Takin ‘it to the Streets “- Dr. Marcel Saucet’s TOP 10 STREET MARKETING ™ TIPS” . ARTIFICE WORKSHOP . Retrieved April 12, 2016 .
  28. Jump up^ Borghini, Stefania; Visconti, Luca M .; Anderson, Laurel; Sherry Jr, John F. (2010). “Symbiotic postures of commercial advertising and street art: Implications for creativity”. Journal of Advertising . 39 (3): 115-28.
  29. Jump up^ Black; Neville (2009). “Fly-Posting: An Exploration of a Controversial ‘Medium’. Journal of Marketing Communications . 15 (4): 209-226. doi :10.1080 / 13527260802091022 .
  30. Jump up^ Marcel Saucet. 2013
  31. Jump up^ Cova, B. & Saucet, M, 2014
  32. Jump up^ Marcel Saucet & Bernard Cova, 2014
  33. Jump up^ “The Secret Lives of Unconventional Campaigns: Bernard Cova, Marcel Saucet :: SSRN. . SSRN  2411026  .
  34. Jump up^ Jay Conrad Levinson, 1984, Marcel Saucet & Bernard Cova, 2014
  35. Jump up^ Bernard Cova and Marcel Saucet, Unconventional Marketing: From Guerrilla to Consumer Made, “In Routledge Companion on The Future of Marketing, Routledge, September 2013.
  36. Jump up^ The Guerrilla Marketing Handbook; Levinson, Jay Conrad; Godin, Seth; Mariner Books; November 1994; ISBN 0395700132; accessed March 2014.
  37. ^ Jump up to:d Bernard Cova and Marcel Saucet, Unconventional Marketing: From Guerrilla to Consumer Made, “Routledge in Routledge, Routledge, September 2013
  38. Jump up^ “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 2014-05-02 . Retrieved 2017-03-01 .
  39. Jump up^ The Hidden (In Plain Sight) Persuaders; Walker, Rob; “The New York Times Magazine;” December 5, 2004; pg. 68
  40. Jump up^ “Small Agency of the Year, Campaign of the Year: Definition 6’s ‘Happiness Machine ‘ ” . . Retrieved 2016-03-31 .
  41. Jump up^ Boston Bomb Scare ; Article; CNN Newsonline; retrieved March 2014.
  42. Jump up^ “Houston Issues Ticket To A MINI Parked Cooper On A Wall” . . Retrieved 2017-03-01 .
  43. Jump up^ Krotoski, Aleks (2006-12-11). “New viral Sony marketing ploy angers consumers” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved 2010-05-26 .
  44. Jump up^ Borghini, Stefania; Visconti, Luca M .; Anderson, Laurel; Sherry Jr, John F. (2010). “Symbiotic postures of commercial advertising and street art: Implications for creativity”. Journal of Advertising . 39 (3): 115-28.
  45. Jump up^ Douglas West, John Ford, (2001), Advertising agency philosophies and employee risk taking, Journal of Advertising 30, no. 1: 77-91
  46. Jump up^ Mark Sweney. “Dr. Dre beats Olympic brand font by sending headphones to Team GB | Media” . The Guardian . Retrieved 2017-03-01.
  47. Jump up^ “How to Pull Off to Guerrilla Marketing Campaign” . Entrepreneur . Retrieved 2016-03-31 .
  48. Jump up^ Levinson, Jay Conrad. “Guerrilla Marketing in a Tough Economy” . Entrepreneur . Retrieved 2016-03-31 .
  49. Jump up^ “Too Far ?, Alluring Ads Entice You to Travel” . ABC News . 2009-05-15 . Retrieved 2016-03-31 .